1.0 Introduction:

Right from time the dispensation of health care services has always been accompanied with one adverse effect or the other occasionally. With the institutionalization of health care, a prominent hazard whose consequence has the tendency of spreading within the health care community emerged and this consequence is nosocomial infection. It is also called hospital acquired infection (HAI) or healthcare associated infection but here for consistency we will adopt the terminology, “nosocomial infection”.

Nosocomial infection can be defined as adverse biological response to pathogenic micro organism’s presence or the presence of its toxin in a patient undergoing treatment that was not manifested or incubated before admission (Garner, Jarvis, Emori, Horan & Hughes, 1996, P.AI; Inweregbu, Dave & Pillard, 2005; WHO, 2002). Operationally, infection that commenced 48hours after admission, within 3 days after discharge or 30 days after operation is regarded as nosocomial infection (Inweregbu, Dave & Pillard, 2005). Nosocomial infection continues to present challenges to healthcare and patients safety despite the advances in healthcare technology. This is because as state-of-art technologies emerge for the delivery of effective and efficient health care for the population, these technologies involve invasive devices, the hospitals in most developing world is being crowded, patients population is becoming older, increase in immune compromised patients and improper use of antibiotics.

Organisms responsible for nosocomial infections are bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites (CDC, n.d.).

2.0 Public health and economic burden

In the United States of America, about 1.7million people suffer from nosocomial diseases annually (CDC, 2010). Among these patients; 52,328 are newborns, 417,946 are adults and children in intensive care units, while 1,266,851 are children and adults from other units (CDC, 2010). It is estimated that about 5% of hospitalized patients acquire nosocomial infection in America, while in the European countries, it is about 10% of hospitalized population and recent studies put in between 10-15% (Yinnon et al., 2012; CDC 2010). Dilek, et al (2012) observed that nosocomial infection rate in developing countries is about three to five times higher than the rate in America. A patient with nosocomial infection spends 21/2times longer in hospital accumulating additional cost of £3,000 more hospital bill in Europe (Inweregbu, et al., 2005). They also estimated that 5,000 deaths are due to nosocomial infection annually causing up to one billion pounds to the National Health Service. Study indicated that intensive care units have nosocomial infections prevalence of about 20.6% (Inweregbu, et al., 2005), and blood stream infection forms between 31.5% to 82.4% of intensive care unit nosocomial infection morbidity and mortality (Chang et al., 2011).

3.0 Common sites of infection and responsible organisms



Signs and Symptoms

Mode of Infection

Urinary tract infection (UTI)

  • Escherichia coli
  • Enterococci
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Candida species
  • Proteus mirabilis
  • Providencia stuartii

Fever, frequent urination, dysuria and supra public tenderness


Lower respiratory infection or pneumonia

  • Klabsiella species
  • Staplylococcus aureus
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Enterobacter species
  • Legionella species
  • Aspergillus species

Cough, high blood temperature and purulent sputum


Inhalation of aerosol or droplet discharges

Surgical site infection

  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Enteroccoccus
  • Yeast
  • Gram-negative organisms

Can be as for UTI, pneumonia and blood stream infections

Surgical wounds

Bloodstream infection

  • Staphylococcus
  • Euterococus
  • Canadida species
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae
  • Entcrobacter species
  • Canadida species

Fever, chills, malaise, anxiety, nausea, vomiting and others

Inversive techniques

Gastro intestinal infection

  • Clostridium difficile
  • Rotavirus
  • Salmonella species




Eye infection

  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Staphylococcus species
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • Adenovirus typeB

-          Pains in the eye

-          Foreign body sensation

-          Bloody or other coloration of the eye

-          Fever

-          Redness of the eye

-          Excessive watering

Contact infection

Central Nervous System Infections

  • Streptococcus pneumonia
  • Hemophilus influenza

Headache, Nausea vomiting & Light secession  fever

Wounds, foreign bodies, head trauma, neuroinvaside procedures

Airborne & droplet


Other emerging and re-emerging organisms can also cause nosocomial disease. Examples are those resistant to common antimicrobial agents like Methicilin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus (VRE), Penicillin Resistant Streptococcal Pneumonia and Sever Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) (Chotani, Roghmann & Peri, 2007, P.535 – 6).

4.0 Mode of transmission

The mode of transmission of nosocomial infection is related to sources of infection. Nosocomial infection can be transmitted from two main sources: exogenous and endogenous sources: Exogenous sources are factors within the healthcare environments including building, plants, devices, instrument, patients and health workers. Endogenous sources are normal flora organisms of a patient. Normal flora organisms could be part of the patient flora before admission and is responsible for primary endogenous infection, while those that become part of the flora during patients stay in the hospital cause secondary infection (Chotani et al., 2007, P.517). Nosocomial infection transmission can occur through airborne, droplets, direct or indirect contact, ingestion or administration of contaminated water, food, medication, intravenous fluids and blood products.




5.0 Risk factors for Nosocomial infection

Host factor, environmental, microbiological and extrinsic factors can constitute risk factors for nosocomial infection (WHO, 2002). Extreme young or old age, nature of illness, poor nutrition, underlying conditions like obesity, abnormal functioning or inadequate ventilators, dusty conditions, wet surfaces and walls can posse danger of nosocomial infection. Water systems can be colonized by legionella organisms, pseudomonas species, Acinobacters and others, while inanimate objects like formite can encourage the spread of VRE or MRSA. Other risk factors are duration of stay in the hospital and use of total parenteral nutrition (Saloojee & Steenhoff, 2001)

Three main microbiological risk factors of nosocomial diseases are the organism’s virulence, ability to survive in the healthcare environment and ability to resist antimicrobial agents, extrinsic factors are medical procedures and chemotherapeutic agents (WHO, 2002).

6.0 Prevention and Control of Nosocomial infection

In every given healthcare setting the existence of an integrated arrangement that would involve infection control department in conjunction with other units like the microbiological laboratory, staff health services, pharmacy and Data/computer units is vital to surveillance and prevention of nosocomial infection. An infection control committee should be formed, where the infection control officer would either chair or be the secretary to the committee. The committee organizes surveillance activities, collect data on exposures, antibiotic use, pathogenic isolates and molecular finger printing, antimicrobial resistant organisms and so on. The committee should draw a check list on hygiene practices among the health workers, organize training and monitor the implementation in the wards. Infectious disease control rounds that adopted check list and monthly report on nosocomial disease situation in a hospital unit is associated with a significant decline in nosocomial infection in that unit (Linnon et al., 2012). This is also consistent with the observation that education of health worker on good hygiene and aseptic techniques proved successful but unfortunately is not sustainable (Saloojee & Steenhoff, 2001). In a related study device associated nosocomial infection was reduced on the application surveillance procedures in a hospital (Dilek et al., 2011).

This is mainly where the Environmental Health Personnel should make an impact as the infection control officer/personnel. The committee should designate environmental health officers to survey the hospital plants, environment and instruments for efficient functioning and hygiene purposes and report to it. Where necessary the infection control officer should make adequate arrangement to secure the abatement of nuisance detected and ensure regular flushing and cleansing of water systems.

 Other important components of nosocomial infection control activities include hand washing, isolation, microbal agent control and immunization.

Hand washing by the healthcare personnel is one of the most effective means of preventing nosocomial infection in the healthcare facilities. The hands of health workers are always inhabited by normal flora organisms (e.g. Staphylococci species and micrococci) which can also extend to the deeper layers of the skin and transient organisms (like Klebsiella – Enterobacter and Acinetobacter). Normal flora organisms can be dangerous to immuno compromised patients or patients with inserted prolonged foreign object. Thorough hand wash with warm water and detergent substantially reduces microbal colonization of health workers hand. Facilities for hand washing should be located at proximate points as possible. Unfortunately health workers neglect this important procedure, and studies indicated the physicians are the most negligent professional group in this regard and compliance is about 40% of the time in most health institutions (Chotani et al., 2007, P.541). The reason for poor practice of hand wash is the fact that many health workers suffer from a complex Saloojee & Steenhoff described as “Omo-syndrome” – that is a feeling of being super neat and sterile (Saloojee & Steenhoff, 2001).

Isolation is meant to break the chain of transmission of pathogens from source to susceptible person. Health workers, patients or visitors could be source of infection. There are two types of isolation: standard and transmission based isolation. Under standard isolation everybody fluid or skin abrasion is considered infectious. Use of protective devices like masks, glove, cleaning equipment and linen, environmental control and cohorting patients are advised.

Transmission based isolation is implementation of standard precautions plus measures specific to the transmission mode. For airborne infection; private room isolation and negative pressure room and for droplet infection; private room isolation or cohorting of patients should be practiced, while private isolation or cohorting patients will be used for contact infection (Chotani et al., 2007, P.453).

Immunization of health worker is essential in some instances in the case of infection that is vaccine preventable. Some organisms can cause infection both at community level and at hospital level. Diphtheria, Hepatis A & B, influenza, measles and chickenpox immunization should be given to the health workers depending on the risk they face in their occupational setting.

Another important measure for the control of nosocomial infection is antibiotic control in health institutions. Antibiotic is the second most used class of drugs in hospital setting and study has shown that 40% of the times, antibiotics were not properly used. Improper use of these drugs leads to the emergence of anti-microbial bacteria and drug reaction. So it is important that an antibiotic policy that will control the use of the drug evolves in a hospital.

7.0 Conclusion:

Nosocomial infection cases are increasing throughout the world and the situation is more pronounced among developing countries. The rate of nosocomial infections in a hospital varies according to the unit, with intensive care units having the highest rate than other units in a hospital, present invasive medical devices, hospital environment, poor personal hygiene of health workers, age and immune level of patients are factors that predisposes people to nosocomial infection. Continuous integrated infection control activities, surveillance, immunization of health workers, isolation and antibiotic use control policies are vital measures towards the control of nosocomial infection in a health facility.








CDC (n.d.). Health – associated infections (HAI). Retrieved from

CDC (2010). The burden. Retrieved from

Chang, Y-J., Yeh, M-L, Li, Y-C, Hsu, C.Y., Lin, C-C., Hsu, M-S. & Chiu, W-T (2011). Predicting hospital acquired infection by scoring system with simple parameters. PLOS ONE, 6(8), e2317. Doi:10-1371/Journal.pone.0023137.

Chotani, R. A., Roghmann, M. & Peri, T. M. (2007). Nosocomial infections. In Nelson, K. E. & Williams, C. M. (editors). Infectious disease epidemiology. Theory and practice (2nd Ed.). Sudbury Massachusetts Jones and Bartlat Publishers.

Dilek, A., Ulger, F. Esen, S., Acar, M., Leblebicioglu, H. & Rosenthal, V.D. (2011). Impact of education and process surveillance on device – associated health care -associated infection rates in a Turkish ICU: findings of International Nosocomail Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Balkan Med. J., 29, 88-92. Doi: 10.51513/balkanmedj.2011.028

Garner, J.S., Javis, W.R., Emori, T.G., Horan, T.C., Hughes, J.M. (1996). CDC definitions for nosocomial and applied epidemiology: principles and practice. St Louis:Mosby.

Inweregbu, K. & Dave, J. & PiHard, A. (2005). Nosocomial infections. Coutin Educ Anaesth Crit Care Pain, 5(1), 14-17. Doi:10-1093/bjaccp/mki006

Saloojee, H & Steenhoff, A. (2001). The health professional’s role in preventing nosocomial infections. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 77, 16 -19. Doi: 10.1136/pmj.77.903.16.

WHO (2002). Prevention of hospital – acquired infections. A practical guide (2nd edition). Retrieved from

Yinnon, A. M., Wiener-Well, Y., Jerassy, Z., Dor, M. Freund, R., Mazouz, B. & Benenson, S. (2012). Improving implementation of infection control guidelines to reduce nosocomial infection rates: pioneering the report card. Journal of Hospital Infection, 81(3), 169-176. Dio: 10.1016/j.jhin.2012.04.011:




Ag. Head, Department of Public Health,

College of Medical Sciences,

University of Calabar, Calabar.

November 20, 2012


Your Excellency, Ogbeni Rauf Adesoji Aregbesola, the Governor of the State of Osun; The Honorable Minister of Health; The Honorable Minister of Environment, Housing and Urban Development; The Honorable Commissioner of Health, State of Osun; The Honorable Commissioner of Environment, State of Osun; Special Advisers, Permanent Secretaries here present; Directors in the MDAs here present; The National President, Environmental Health Officers Association of Nigeria; The Secretary/Registrar, West African Health Examination Board; The Registrar, Environmental Health Officers Registration Council of Nigeria-EHORECON, Our Royal Fathers;  Gentlemen of the Press ladies and Gentlemen.


The environment is so critical to the survival or death of man so much so that any human society that ignores this scientific fact does so at its own peril. All advanced nations of the world continually pay attention to the potential impact (positive or negative) of the environment on the citizens’ health and socioeconomic wellbeing. The relationship between environment and health has been discussed in detail elsewhere (Olaniran et al., 1995). In Nigeria, there is an urgent need for conscientizing the political class, policy makers, programme managers, and the entire citizenry on the critical issue of Environment and Health, and its role in Primary Health Care (PHC). The paper will present this topical issue by going from the general to the particular. Brief overview of Health, Public Health, Environmental Health and PHC; Challenges and Opportunities will be discussed.

  1. 2.    HEALTH

A popular dictum says ‘Health is Wealth”. However, in contemporary Nigerian society, it is self-evident that money, especially primitive accumulation of material wealth, is wealth. This misconception is primarily responsible for the nonchalant attitude of most Nigerians to preventive health care. Yet, it is generally accepted that “Prevention is Better than Cure.”

The World Health Organization (WHO, 1940), in the Preamble to the Constitution, defined Health as” a state of complete physical mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. This WHO definition is utopian and unattainable by any person. Health of a person is so fluid and ever-changing. It largely depends on several environmental factors outside the control of a person, as well as complex personal genetic traits, socio-cultural attributes and negative behaviours. From the Environmental Health perspective, health is defined as a state of equilibrium between man and numerous, complex, physical, chemical, biological, psycho-social/socio-cultural factors in his environment. A state of disequilibrium (imbalance) results in disease or illness. This definition is less utopian and forms the basis of the epidemiological triad-Agent, Host and Environment. The Health profession comprises Public Health, Medicine, Pharmacy, Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nursing Sciences, Pharmacology, Radiography, Medical Statistics, etc. and their subspecialties/subfields.

2.1.                     POPULATION AND HEALTH ESTIMATES

Table 1 Population and Health Estimates for Selected Countries in West Africa.

S/N Country

Population Health Estimates

Population (Mid 2012) x106

Births per 1000 population.

Deaths per 1000 population.

Infant Mortality Rate

% Population in Ages

Life Expectancy at Birth

Percent population Urban

<15 65+ Male Female
1. Benin










2. Cote d’Ivoire










3. Ghana










4. Liberia










5. Nigeria










6. Sierra Leone










Source: Population Reference Bureau (PRB), (2012)

Table 1 shows population and health estimates for six countries in West Africa. Benin, Liberia and Nigeria have estimated 40 births per 1000 population; Ghana has lowest number of deaths per 1000 population (i.e. 8) while Sierra Leone has the highest Infant Mortality Rate per 1000 live births (i.e. 109). The population in the six countries comprises mainly youths (39-44%) while only 2-3% are in the 65+ years age group. Females have higher life expectancy (i.e., live longer) than males in all the six countries. Nigeria has the highest percent of population in urban area (i.e. 51%). Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey –NDHS (2008) reported that 71.5 % and 45.3% of households used improved source of drinking water (potable water) in urban and rural areas, respectively. In the same survey, the proportions of household using improved sanitation facilities that were not shared were 31.4% in urban areas and 24.6% in rural areas. The NDHS findings are consistent with data from other studies indicating higher water supply and sanitation facilities coverage in urban than rural areas in Nigeria.

  1. 3.     PUBLIC HEALTH

Public Health is “the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals (Winslow, 1920). This classic definition of public health is all-encompassing and still subsists. Public health is multidisciplinary and multi sectoral as shown in subfields/subspecialties which include Environmental Health, Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Public Health Sociology, Health Education and Promotion, Occupational Health and Safety, Sanitary Engineering, Public Health Administration, Public Health Nutrition, Public Health Nursing, Family and Reproductive Health (Maternal and Child Health), Veterinary Public Health, School Health, Care of the Aged and Physically Challenged, International Health, History of Public Health and Public Health Law. Public Health comprises many professionals with varied but related complementary educational, technical and professional trainings. Public Health is therefore the umbrella profession for the 17 distinct subfields.

Public Health is as old as human history. From the beginnings of human civilization, it was recognized that polluted water and lack of proper waste disposal spread communicable diseases. Early religions attempted to regulate human behavior that specifically related to health, from types of food eaten to, regulating certain indulgent behaviours such as drinking of alcohol, or sexual relations. The establishment of governments placed responsibility on political leaders to develop public health policies and programmes to prevent disease as much as possible to ensure social stability and economic prosperity. The World Health Organization (WHO) is the international agency that coordinates and acts on global public health issues. In the United States of America, the front-line of public health initiatives are state and county (local) departments. The United States Public Health Service (PHS) coordinates most of its intervention activities through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia.

In Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada is responsible for public health, emergency preparedness and response, and infectious and chronic disease control and prevention. The Public Health system in Nigeria is subsumed under the Federal Ministry of Health whose major focus is curative health care instead of preventive health care. It is high time the Federal Government of Nigeria established a Public Health Agency to provide sharper focus and better funding for public health programmes to reduce the unacceptably high number of preventable deaths in the country.


Environmental health is the science and art of preventing, controlling and abating physical, chemical, biological, psychosocial//socio-cultural hazards in the environment that may adversely affect public health and the environment. A hazard is any substance, condition or factor that has the potential for adversely affecting public health and the environment. A hazard may be physical, chemical, biological socio-cultural or psycho-social.

Public health is endangered whenever hazards get to man through environmental pathways such as the air we breathe, the water we drink, the food we eat, the house we live in, the soil used for planting, and fomites, contaminated inanimate objects (e.g. disposable gloves and overalls of medical doctors and nurses).

The National Environmental Sanitation Policy (Federal Ministry of Environment-FMENV., 2005) defines Environmental Sanitation, a major component of Environmental Health, as “the principles and practice of effecting healthful and hygienic conditions in the environment to promote public health and welfare, improve quality of life, reduce poverty and ensure a sustainable environment”.

The Policy lists fourteen essential components of Environmental Sanitation as follows:

  1. Solid Waste Management;
  2. Medical Waste Management;
  3. Excreta and Sewage Management;
  4. Food Sanitation;
  5. Sanitary Inspection of Premises;
  6. Market and Abattoir Sanitation;

vii Adequate Potable Water Supply;

viii. School Sanitation;

ix) Pest and Vector Control;

x)                  Management of Urban Drainages;

xi)              Control of Reared and Stray Animals;

xii)           Disposal of the Dead (man and Animals);

xiii)         Weed and Vegetation Control; and

xiv)         Hygiene Education and Promotion.

The components listed above are all essentially, subspecialty areas of Environmental Health. An experienced, well trained Environmental Health Officer (EHO) is expected to have acquired relevant knowledge, skills and technical know-how to initiate, execute and supervise Environmental Health programmes, activities and interventions in any of the fourteen components of the Policy. It is noteworthy that the Federal Ministry of Environment has also developed Policy Guidelines on Sanitary Inspection of Premises, Excreta and Sewage Management, Market and Abattoir Sanitation, Pest and Vector Control and Solid Waste Management.


At an International Conference held at Alma Ata, WHO/UNICEF (1978) defined PHC as “… essential health care based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community by means acceptable to them, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and the country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development in a spirit of self-determination; it forms an integral part of both the country’s health system of which it is the central function and main focus of the overall social and economic development of the community; it is the first level of contact of the individuals, the family and the community with the national health system, bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work and constitutes the first element of continuing health care process.’

This comprehensive definition is quite explicit; however, Egwu (2006) has provided other dimensions of PHC in Nigeria. Arising from this definition of PHC are some fundamental principles (National Open University of Nigeria – NOUN, 2008). The principles are:

  1. Absolute responsibility of the government for the health of the people.
  2. The right and duty of people (individual and collectively) to participate in their own health activities.
  3. Emphasis on preventive measures.
  4. Equitable distribution and accessibility of health services
  5. Application of appropriate technology through well-defined health programmes integrated into the national health system.
  6. The social orientation of health workers of all cadres to serve the people.
  7. A multi sectoral, multidisciplinary approach.

Under the dynamic leadership of the late Minister of Health, Professor Olikoye Ransome-Kuti, PHC as a strategy of Health for All by the year 2000 reached its zenith with adequate funding and high immunization coverage for the six childhood killer diseases. Nigeria also produced its first National Health Policy (FMOH, 1988). PHC service coverage, accessibility, etc have since nose-dived in many rural communities. Adeyemo (2005) has identified problem areas in PHC implementation in Ife-East Local Government Area, State of Osun.

Primary Health Centres are the last (lowest) level of health care in the Nigerian Health Care System. The next higher level is the Secondary Health Care (General Hospitals) while the apex level is Tertiary Care (Teaching Hospitals, Specialist Hospitals, etc). The National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA) set up in 1992 is the apex body for coordinating PHC services in Nigeria. It has six zonal offices and operates in all the 36 states and 774 local governments – in theory. In practice, most rural dwellers do not have access to PHC services and many have no choice but to consult quacks or traditional healers for their urgent health needs (Bakare, 2012).

Components of PHC are:

  1. Education concerning prevailing health problems and the methods of preventing and controlling them;
  2. Promotion of food supply and proper nutrition;
  3. Adequate supply of safe (potable) water and basic sanitation;
  4. Maternal and child care including family planning;
  5. Immunization against the major infectious diseases;
  6. Prevention and control of locally endemic and epidemic diseases;
  7. Appropriate treatment of common diseases and injuries;
  8. Provision of essential drug;
  9. Community mental health care; and
  10. Dental (oral) health.

The rationale for the link between PHC and EH is the fundamental principle and philosophy guiding the training of an Environmental Health Officer: Prevention and Control through Hygienic Practices and application of the Principles of Sanitation.  Hygiene, the science of Health and its maintenance, comprises a system of principles for the preservation of health and the prevention of disease. In practical terms, it comprises personal (individual) and community actions taken to preserve heath and prevent disease. An example is simple hand washing with water and soap after using the toilet. By contrast, Sanitation is the effecting of healthful and hygienic conditions in the environment by using measures such as drainage, ventilation, potable water supply, sewage treatment, medical waste management, air pollution control, etc.

Environmental Health Officers Registration Council of Nigeria – EHORECON (2007) has adopted WHO’s identified functions of Environmental Health Officers. The listed functions are:

  1. Waste management;
  2. Food hygiene and control;
  3. Pest and vector control;
  4. Environmental health control of housing and sanitation
  5. Epidemiological investigation and control;
  6. Air quality management;
  7. Occupational health and safety;
  8. Water resources management and sanitation;
  9. Noise control;
  10. Protection of recreational environment;
  11. Radiation control and health;
  12. Control of frontiers, air and sea ports and border crossing;
  13. Pollution control and abatement;
  14. Educational facilities (health promotion and education);
  15. Promotion and enforcement of environmental health quality and standard ;
  16. Collaborative efforts to study the effects of environmental hazards (research);
  17. Environmental health impact assessment (EHIA).

This elaborate list of EHO’s functions is quite ambitious and presumes that the current quality of training of EHOs in Nigeria with respect to scientific, technical and professional content, can meet the current complex challenges of Public Health in Nigeria. However, the identified functions above are controvertible evidence that Environmental Health is key to successful PHC services delivery in Nigeria. Furthermore, an EHO’s training stands him/her in good stead to implement health programmes and activities related to components i, ii, iii, v, vi, and x (over 50%) of the PHC components. Indeed, an EHO is a multivalent professional.

  1. 7.     CHALLENGES

The Environmental Health profession in Nigeria currently faces some challenges, like many other professions all over the world. Some of the challenges are:

  1. The profession MUST put its house in order because a house divided against itself cannot stand. Struggle for supremacy must be jettisoned for the profession to grow and earn the respect of other health professions.
  2. Efforts should be made to train and retrain EHOs to enhance their skills and promote professional growth in line with global best practices.
  3. Employment of more qualified EHOs at the Federal, State and Local Government and the private sector should be vigorously pursued by EHORECON.
  4. A hungry officer is an angry officer. EHORECON should put political pressure on States and Local Governments that fail to pay salaries of EHOs as at when due.
  5. Local Government authorities should always provide a stand-by waste evacuation vehicle so that solid waste accumulated on Environmental Sanitation days will not be washed back into the drainage system.
  6. Climate change: Flooding and its serious public health challenges such as cholera, typhoid and other disease epidemics; pneumonia, venomous snake bites, general poor sanitation conditions,  lack of potable water supply, etc cannot be ignored. Environmental Health Officers must liaise with National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) and relevant State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA) to manage public health emergencies arising from flooding and other natural or man-made disasters.


1. About eight Nigerian Universities now offer Public Health/Environmental Health courses at the Bachelor’s degree level. A few others offer Masters while one offers training up to PhD level. EHOs should seize this opportunity to strengthen and enhance their carrier.

2. The National Association should seek linkages with Pan American Health Association, American Public Health Association, Environmental Health Associations in the U.S and elsewhere. Canadian Public Health Association and others for sponsorship of many of your activities including short post graduate courses.

3. Contributions to the new Occupational Health Bill currently being debated in the National Assembly.

  1. 9.     CONCLUSION

Environmental Health is a crucial component of Public Health. Functions of an experienced Environmental Health Officer are quite extensive so much so that his role in PHC services is indisputable and indispensible. Environmental Health is indeed the key to effective PHC services delivery.

I thank you for your attention.


Adeyemo, O.O. (2005). Local Government and Health Care Delivery in Nigeria: A case study”. J. Hum. Ecol., 18(2): 149-160.

Bakare, B. (2012). Improving Primary Health Care. Sunday Punch, Nov. 11, 2012. P 13.

Egwu, I. N. (2006). Primary Health Care System in Nigeria-Theory, Practice and Perspectives. Lagos: Elmore Publishers.

Environmental Health Officers Registration Council of Nigeria-EHORCON (2007). National Guidelines on Environmental Health Practice in Nigeria. FMENV, Abuja. Pp 4-5.

Federal Ministry of Environment-FMENV (2005). National Environmental Sanitation Policy. FMENV., Abuja.

FMENV. (2005). Policy Guidelines on Excreta and Sewage Management. FMENV., Abuja.

FMENV. (2005). Policy Guidelines on Market and Abattoir Sanitation. FMENV., Abuja.

FMENV. (2005). Policy Guidelines on Pest and Vector Control. FMENV., Abuja.

FMENV. (2005). Policy Guidelines on Sanitary Inspection of nPremises. FMENV., Abuja.

FMENV. (2005). Policy Guidelines on Solid Waste Management. FMENV., Abuja.

National Open University of Nigeria-NOUN (2008). Primary Health Care and HIV/AIDS. Pp 1-123.

National Population Commission (NPC) (Nigeria) and ICF Macro (2009). Nigeria demographic and Health Survey, 2008, Abuja, Nigeria. Pp. 21-22.

Olaniran, N.S., Akpan, E.A.; Ikpeme, E.E. and Udofia, G.A. (1995). Environment and Health-Module Eleven. Nigerian Conservation Foundation-NCF. Lagos: Macmillan Nigeria Publishers Limited.

Population Reference Bureau-PRB (2012). 2012 World Population Data Sheet, WashingtonD.C. USA.

Winslow, C.E.A. (1920). The Untitled Fields of Public Health: Science, 51 (1306): 23-33.

World Health Organization (1946). “Preamble to the Constituition of the World Health Organization”.






I am delighted and privileged to welcome you to the 45th National conference and scientific workshop of the Environmental Health Officers Association of Nigeria (EHOAN).

Occasions like this are avenues provide to reflect over and also to appraise developments that have taken place in or related to the profession since the last conference in a congress like this. So far so good we are moving and we are making progress. However, that is not to say that we are free from challenges. We continue to relate with every stakeholder to ensuring the steady progress and positive developments in Environmental Health practice in Nigeria.

Government both at the state’s and local Government levels continue to be the highest employers of Environmental Health Officers, the federal and some state governments need much to do in the employment sector. It is our vision that the private sector will in no distant time spring up to compete with government agencies in the employment of EHOs for the good of our preventive health sector. Since the last conference certain positive things have happened and wish to report as follow:


During the 2011 conference in Umuahia, we reported a proposed Association meeting of the federation of Environmental Health Professionals in West to hold in Lagos. I am glad to inform you that the meeting was held between 27th and 28th of December 2011 at the City Hotel in Agege Lagos. Five Member states of ECOWAS including Nigeria were in attendance. The other countries were Ghana, Gambia, Benin Republic, and Togo. The meeting ratified a draft constitution in English and a French version for the Association. Zakariya’u Aliyu; the National President of EHOAN in Nigeria was elected as the interim President General; Raphael Marfo of Ghana Ports Authority, the General Secretary and other officers coming from Togo, Gambia and Benin Republic. The main objectives of the Association are:

i. To bring together in harmony and unity all Environmental Health Professionals from among the region in the employment of either governmental or non-governmental organizations or the organized private sector.

ii.         To promote, and foster the interest of its members through advocacy, linkages and interactions using available means of communications, protocols, Charters and partnerships.

iii.        To establish means of communication among members for the promotion of exchange of views, ideas, concepts, discoveries and best practices in Environmental health and public health services in the region.

iv.        To publish a newsletter, magazine, or any other means of information and disseminate same in the interest of its members and the general public.

v.         To encourage research on matters affecting environmental/public health and to make such findings available to relevant stakeholders for the purpose of strategic planning, policy formulation and legislation in the region.

vi.        To advance the education, training and professional excellence of its members and employees and establish a reward system in the award of fellowships, scholarships, certificates, medals and prizes.

vii.       To co-operate with other Associations and Institutions of like interest and objectives within and outside West Africa and to perform all lawful acts for the attainment of the objectives of the Federation.

viii.     To advise governments of ECOWAS member states on issues of interest to environmental health.

ix.       To support in addressing other environmental health emergencies as may arise.

I am also glad to announce to you the presence of some professional members from Ecowas states and other officials of the federation in this year’s conference. This also gives us the opportunity to hold the annual meeting of the federation. We heartily welcome participants from other sister ECOWAS states to Nigeria.


It is pleasing to also report that our Association has secured an office accommodation in Abuja, which shall henceforth serve as the National secretariat of EHOAN. The office is located at Wuse 3 Abuja. The secretariat is in the process of employing a qualified EHO/EHT as the administrative officer of the secretariat. Three qualified applicants have been shortlisted already for employment before the end of the month of November.


Preparations are at advanced stage to commence the B.Sc. degree program in Environmental Health at the National Open University of Nigeria. Indeed, the senate of the University has approved the programme and the draft course modules have been prepared awaiting experts review before advertisement. It is our hope that the course will take off by the 1st quarter of 2013.


You may be aware of the public hearing that has taken place last September at the House of Representatives in respect of this our bill. The Association was fully represented and the hearing was a huge success. We still await the final outcome from the House before it goes to the senate. However, we are confident very confident that in the 2013 conference we shall be presenting to you a signed Environmental Health Control Act; 2013.


Our Association regrets the loss of lives and property during the last flood disasters in many state of Nigeria, notably; Kogi, Bayelsa, Delta, Benue and Adamawa states. However, the response to these and similar events leaves much to be desired as far as the coordination and involvement of Environmental Health Officers are concerned. We urge that the National Emergency Management Agency and the states version to always carry EHOs along in the planning and intervention activities especially having to do with the control of communicable diseases, management of temporary settlement conditions, safety of drinking water, provision of toilets, hygiene education, etc.


The theme for this year’s conference is ‘ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH – THE KEY TO PRIMARY HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SERVICES.’ This theme is in recognition of the important role Environmental health plays in the global and national initiatives to mitigating diseases burden through cost-effective approach. It is our hope that the lessons to be learnt are going to add value to our individual and collective efforts in the implementation of Primary Health Care and control of communicable diseases.

Before I end this address, I will like to specially appreciate the government and people of the state of Osun state for the warm reception of our guests in Oshogbo. Special appreciation goes to the state Governor- Ogbeni Rauf Adesoji Aregbesola for honouring our invitation and also the good things he is doing in this sector since assumption of office. We pledge to continue the cooperation with your administration to better the condition of living of the people of this state.

Finally, I want to thank you all for listening and God bless.


Sanitarian Zakariyau Aliyu; M.Sc; fseh

National president (EHOAN)





It is my honour and privilege to welcome you all to the maiden conference of federation of Environmental Health professionals in West Africa. The antecedence of our great profession has been very profound and nodal in the history of mankind. Indeed there has not been any well acknowledged civilization in the history of mankind that did not have one form or another of a system of human health and environmental control for its sustainable development. Religions and cultures also have extolled the virtues of environmental health and hygiene. Human sophistication and development has come to formalize these virtues into a profession which we belong.

In West Africa the spirit of neighbourliness, cooperation and experience sharing among us are the driving forces that have informed the need for this federation meeting. As is common saying ‘’Diseases know not political borders’’ especially at this time of globalization, the profession of Environmental Health cannot but come together to uphold those very principles and practices that have bound us together in the practice of Environmental Health profession.               

  We in West Africa sub-region are not only a geographical convenience but a people with common cultural and historical identity that continue to bind us in our quest for socio-economic advancement. The history of this profession will not be complete without recalling the great role it played in the complete eradication of small pox in the 70s. Since then there have been emerging challenges to both the health and the living environment of our citizens. These challenges have also informed some of the transformations experienced in the training, nomenclature and practice of the profession especially here in Nigeria. It is a matter of concern to us that despite the progress the world has experienced some of our member states are still the same as at during the colonial era.

Some of the emerging challenges to the practice of Environmental Health now include:

1. The build-up of hazardous wastes in our homes and industries.

2. Electronic waste [E-waste] dumps largely as a result of imported used electronic gadgets.

 3. Climate change and the ecological shift in diseases zones.

4. Environmental pollution (water, air and soil).

   As a matter of emphasis, issues pertaining to spread of diseases or environmental pollution do not recognize political boundaries. No matter how good a member state is performing if a neighbouring country remains adamant about its roles and responsibilities to the environment and health, the efforts of the neighbour may become fruitless or counterproductive. That is the essence of regional co-operation. That also was the justification for institutions like West Africa Health Examinations Board (WAHEB) in the training of Public Health Superintendents now Environmental Health Officers that harmonizes training curricula and Examination for Anglophone West Africa. Nothing stops the revitalization and strengthening of this protocol and even a further expansion to include all francophone countries.

    Concerning a harmonized practice regimen of the profession, pertinent questions include how we streamline our code of professional practice, who and how do we enlist and license members in the practice to ensure the necessary discipline and control. On the whole how do we project the image of the profession in our member states for the benefit of our citizens? This meeting should be able to address these questions. I also understand that umbrella professional Association of West Africa Environmental Health officers once existed but however, now moribund. Once again, this conference will serve as the foundation for a revitalized ‘’CONFERENCE OF WEST AFRICA ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PRACTITIONERS ASSOCIATION’’ (COWAEHPA).           We are happy to announce the development of a draft constitution for presentation and vetting by this meeting.

My fellow colleagues in Environmental Health, there are no short-cuts to success as there are also no successes without sacrifices. At this time of merry-making and holidays, we are assembled here for a very noble cause. This I believe is in the spirit of sacrifice. In the same vein our commitment to this cause and financial sacrifices are most desirable at this critical period of our reformation.

To our most cherished institutions [WAHEB and EHORECON] we cannot thank you enough for all the support to making this conference a success. It is our hope that after this maiden meeting each member country should be able to properly organize and strengthen itself financially and administratively to attend or host subsequent federation meetings of our great Association.

Finally, it is our hope that these two days of our meeting will lay the foundation of a greater and progressive profession that is enviable among the committee of professions in WEST AFRICA.


Thank you and God bless.



Environmentalist Advocates Stiffer Penalty for Indiscriminate E-Waste Disposal

Mr Isah Adamu, an environmentalist, has called for stiffer penalty against any form of indiscriminate disposal of e-waste, especially electronic gadgets.

Isa, the Director of Education and Training in the Environmental Health Officers Registration Council of Nigeria (EHORECON), gave the advice in an interview with newsmen in Lagos.

He said that stiffer action and enforcement strategy should be put in place to control indiscriminate disposal of electronic gadgets.

He said many of the gadgets contain heavy metals such as calcium, mercury, adding that with time, these metals percolate into the soil, posing danger.

“Many of these elements find their way into water body and permeate into the ground water source and the effect can be grave when the water is used for ether cooking or drinking.

“Heavy metals are really hazardous as they can damage the kidney and are also cancerous,” Adamu said and advised Nigerians to embrace proper waste disposal culture.

“All hands must be on deck by all relevant stakeholders to achieve this. It is now left for environmental health officers to monitor and punish defaulters appropriately,” he said.




Legal Intervention In Environmental Health Control And Court Processes








Let me first of all commend the Environmental Health Officers Registration Council of Nigeria for organizing this Mandatory Continuing Education Programme (MCEP), which is aimed at sensitizing, updating practising Environmental Health Officers on the evolving environmental development in the field of environmental health, spur consciousness and also equipping them with adequate information to safeguard the environment from the dangers of misuse of as a result of lack of awareness of the environmental laws and consequently non-compliance with these laws.


Economic instruments, informational devices, voluntary agreements, command and control regulations are just some of the techniques modern states use to protect the environment. It is often alleged that environmental offences are not ‘real’ crimes.

They are merely ‘quasi-criminal’ regulatory offences. This paper rejects this view. It argues that environmental crime is a serious and growing problem. It examines some of the constituents of environmental offences and claims that environmental offenders often have very strong financial incentives to break the law. It claims that fines are currently too low and that serious consideration should be given to the increased use of civil and administrative penalties.


It should be noted that the best of environmental standards in the world will be innocuous if they are not complied with or effectively enforced. Compliance and enforcement therefore ensures good environmental governance, and respect for the rule of law. They equally determine the compatibility of environmental standards with practical realities and to a greater extent provide a yardstick for assessing whether the standards should be maintained, amended or repealed.


Like many other developing Countries, Nigeria faces the challenge of environmental health problems. A problem is basically a gap between what is and what ought to be, what we have and what we want or can reasonably hope to achieve. Environmental health problems are therefore, needs perceived to require mitigative action.[1]


The Environment surrounds and affects man, while man also affects the environment. In view of that fact that man affects the environment, the responsibility of taking purposeful collective action, that may harmonise human existence with the rest of the environment falls on man, by putting in place laws that regulates such interaction between man and environment. One of such basic functions of Environmental Health Control is the protection of the environment in which people live and work.




Nigeria spans about 924,000 square kilometres of land area with ecological zones ranging from the dry savannahs in the north, to the water abundant Niger Delta which is rich in energy and mineral deposits. Nigeria possesses a well endowed environment and natural resource base both renewable and non-renewable, and has remained a key player in all global environmental initiatives since the 1970’s.


In 1987, Nigeria took a giant leap by becoming an environmentally conscious nation following the dumping of toxic waste in Koko village, in Delta State. The country was before this incident, ill- equipped to manage such environmental crisis, as there were no institutional capacity and legislations to address such matters.



It is a law maxim that “ubi societe, ubi jus” meaning that whenever there is Society (Environment), there must be law that will regulate the interaction of man with the environment.

Law consists of a body of rules of human conduct which is imposed upon and enforced among the members of a given state while ‘Regulations’ on the other hand can be defined as a set of rules or orders prescribed for management or government. Regulations have their roots in laws and are put in place to ensure compliance with such laws.


The basis of environmental policy in Nigeria is contained in the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Pursuant to Section 20 of the Constitution, the State is empowered to protect and improve the environment and safeguard the water, air and land, forest and wildlife of Nigeria. In addition to this, Section 2 of the Environmental Impact Assessment Act of 1992 (EIA Act) provides that the public or private sector of the economy shall not undertake or embark on or authorize projects or activities without prior consideration of the effect on the environment.


Law is a body of directions or commands requiring or prohibiting certain conduct, enforceable by legal sanctions. It is also a body of directions or commands that grant authority to a public body or agency or requires such a body or agency to carry out designated powers. Thus, environmental/public health law forbids persons to engage in activities that endanger the health of others, and it specifies government agencies to carry out certain programs to advance environmental/public health and to prevent activities that are harmful to the health of individuals or of the public.


In discussing environmental/public health, it becomes apparent that the “environmental/public” element is the legal component. Without the law (without legal authorization of environmental/public health programs, including the legal authorization and appropriation of public funds), the very existence of the field of environmental/public health is in question.


The topic above will be discussed under sub-topics of legal interventions in environmental health control and court processes.

Yes, the very existence of the field of environmental/public health is in question, because this lecture intends to x-ray the very interventions and contributions of laws, decrees and Acts that are relevant to and are of environmental/public health importance and their impact on environmental/public health.


The lecture is divided into three parts, the first being review of various laws, decrees and Acts of environmental and public health importance. The second part will give a short overview of what is a court, the various levels, the responsibility of an environment regulator to a court, the trial and prosecution of environment violators and court processes, while the third part is on questions and answers on the environment.



Nigeria is committed to a national environmental policy that will ensure sustainable development based on proper management of the environment. This has necessitated the Federal Government of Nigeria passing various laws and regulations to safeguard the Nigerian environment thus promoting positive demands and realistic planning that balances human needs against the carrying capacity of the environment.  This requires that a number of complementary policies, strategies, management and approaches are put in place which should ensure, among others, that:

a)    environmental concerns are integrated into major economic decision- making process;

b)    environmental remediation costs are built into major development projects;

c)    economic instruments are employed in the management of natural resources

d)    environmentally friendly technologies are applied;


Environmental Impact Assessment is mandatorily carried out before any major development project is embarked on.

This policy, in order to succeed must be built on the following sustainable development principles:

a)    The precautionary principle which holds that where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, the lack of full scientific knowledge shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective means to prevent environmental degradation;

b)    Pollution Prevention Pays Principle (3p+) which encourages Industry to invest positively to prevent pollution;

  1.                       i.        The polluter pays principle (PPP) which suggests that the polluter should bear the cost of preventing and controlling pollution;
  2.                     ii.        The user pays principle (UPP), in which the cost of a resource to a user must include all the environmental costs associated with its extraction, transformation and use (including the costs of alternative or future uses forgone);

c)    The principle of intergenerational equity which requires that the needs of the present generation are met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs;

d)    The principle of intra-generational equity which requires that different groups of people within the country and within the present generation have the right to benefit equally from the exploitation of resources and that they have an equal right to a clean and healthy environment; and

e)    The subsidiary principle which requires that decisions should as much as possible be made by communities affected or on their behalf by the authorities closest to them.[2]


In discussing Legal intervention in Environmental Health Control one may like to ask; what is legal intervention, what is environmental health and what is environmental health Control.

Legal Intervention: is the procedure used in a lawsuit by which the court allows a third person who was not originally a party to the suit to become a party, by joining with either the plaintiff or the defendant.

In this instance, legal intervention implies the legal activism that give meaning to the import and intent of environmental health control and its impact in the taming of the environment in a manner that human activities no longer constitute danger to the environment though the instrumentalities of the laws, bye-laws, decrees, acts, policies and direction of governance.


Environmental Health comprises those aspects of human health, including quality of life that is determined by physical, chemical, biological, social and psychosocial factors in the environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing, correcting, controlling and preventing those factors in the environment that can potentially affect adversely the health of present and future generations, while


Environmental Health Controlis those services which implement environmental health policies through monitoring and control activities. They also carry out that role by promoting the improvement of environmental parameters and by encouraging the use of environmentally friendly and healthy technologies and behaviours. They also have a leading role in developing and suggesting new policy areas.


Having explained Legal Intervention, Environmental Health and Environmental Health Control, it is imperative to review some of the laws, decrees and Acts that are relevant to and are of environmental/public health impact in Nigeria. Such national legislations include the followings:

  1. The Public Health Laws (1917) now known as Public Health Law/Ordinance Cap 164 of 1958;
  2. The Food and Drugs Decree, No. 35 of 1974;
  3. The Standards Organisation of Nigeria Decree, No. 56 of 1971;
  4. The Animal Disease Control Decree, No. 10 of 1988;
  5. Federal Environmental Protection Agency Act of 1988
  1. Harmful Wastes (Special Criminal Provisions etc.) Act of 1988 (Harmful Wastes Act).
  1. The Marketing of Breast Milk substitute Decree, No. 41 of 1990.
  2. Environmental Impact Assessment Act of 1992
  3. The National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC) Decree No. 15 of 1993[3].


In addition, there are some subsidiary policies and regulations made pursuant to substantive Laws, Decrees and Acts to safeguard the Nigerian environment. These include:

  1. National Environmental Protection (Effluent Limitation) Regulations:
  2. National Environmental Protection (Pollution Abatement in Industries and Facilities Generating Wastes) Regulations;
  3. National Environmental Protection (Management of Solid and Hazardous Wastes) Regulations.
  4. Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria (EGASPIN) 2002, published by the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR).
  5. National Environmental (Pollution Abatement in Mining and Processing of Coal, Ores and Industrial Minerals) Regulations, 2009
  6. National Environmental (Sanitation and Wastes Control) Regulations, 2009
  7. National Environmental (Pollution Abatement in Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Soaps and Detergent Manufacturing Industries) Regulations, 2009
  8. National Environmental (Pollution Abatement in Food, Beverages and Tobacco Sector) Regulations, 2009
  9. National Environmental (Pollution Abatement in Textiles, Wearing Apparel, Leather and Footwear Industry) Regulations, 2009

10. The National Environmental (Wetlands, River Banks and Lake Shores Protection) Regulations, 2009

11. The National Environmental (Watershed, Hilly, Mountainous and Catchment Areas) Regulations,  2009

12. National Environmental (Ozone Layer Protection) Regulations, 2009

13. National Environmental (Noise Standards and Control) Regulations, 2009

14. National Environmental (Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing) Regulations, 2009

15. National Environmental (Permitting and Licensing Systems) Regulations, 2009. [4]

16. Abuja Environmental Protection Board (Solid Waste Control/Environmental Monitoring) Regulations 2005

17. Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency Law

18. Akwa Ibom State Environmental Protection and Waste Management Agency Law

19. Ondo State Waste Management Law 2002 among several others.


Of all the laws affecting the environment of particular concern are FEPA law, EIA Act, the National Environmental Practice Regulation and most recently, the establishment of NESRA.


(1) Federal Environmental Protection Agency Act of 1988 (FEPA Act).

The Act established a powerful Agency, a corporate body with perpetual succession and common seal, and gave it power for the responsibility of enforcing environmental protection measures. Its functions include:

  1. The responsibility for the development of the environment in general and environmental technology.
  2. Advising the Federal Government on national environmental policies.
  3. Preparation of master plans for the development of environmental science and technology.
  4. Promotion of co—operation in environmental science and technology with similar bodies inside and outside Nigeria.


Other relevant sections are: Sections 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19 of the Act.

The following Regulations were made pursuant to the FEPA Act:

  1.           i.    National Environmental Protection (Effluent Limitation) Regulations:
  2.         ii.    National Environmental Protection (Pollution Abatement in Industries and Facilities Generating Wastes) Regulations; and
  3.        iii.    National Environmental Protection (Management of Solid and Hazardous Wastes) Regulations.


(2) The above federal enactments however were not sufficient in capturing the whole essence of environmental law, thus, creating a vacuum in the effective enforcement of environmental laws, standards and regulations in the country and as a result of this, NESREA was born. In addressing the need for an enforcement Agency, the Federal Government in line with section 20 of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, established the National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) as a parastatal of the Federal Ministry of Environment, Housing and Urban Development.


(2). National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA)

Is there no Conflict with the establishment of NESREA alongside FEPA?

By the NESREA Act, the Federal Environmental Protection Agency Act Cap F 10 LFN 2004 has been repealed.



The National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA), an Agency of the Ministry of Environment Housing and Urban Development is charged with the responsibility of enforcing environmental laws, regulations and standard in deterring people, industries and organization from polluting and degrading the environment.


When Was NESREA Established?

The NESREA Act was signed into law by President Umaru Musa Yar’Adua, GCFR, and this has been published in the Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette No. 92, Vol. 94 of 31st July, 2007.


What Is The Mandate Of NESREA?

NESREA has responsibility for the protection and development of the environment, biodiversity conservation and sustainable development of Nigeria’s natural resources in general and environmental technology including coordination, and liaison with, relevant stakeholders within and outside Nigeria on matters of enforcement of environmental standards, regulations, rules, laws, policies and guidelines.


What Is The Vision Of The Agency?

To ensure a cleaner and healthier environment for Nigerians.


What Is The Mission Of The Agency?

To inspire personal and collective responsibility in building an environmentally conscious society for the achievement of sustainable development in Nigeria.


What Is The Focus Of NESREA?

• To protect the environment

• Enforcement of Laws and Regulations on the Environment.

• Maintaining Environmental Standards.

• To create environmental awareness

• To engage in partnership in the protection of the environment.


What Are The Functions Of The Agency?

• Enforce compliance with laws, guidelines, policies and standards on environmental matters;

• Coordinate and liaise with, stakeholders, within and outside Nigeria on matters of environmental standards, regulations and enforcement;

• Enforce compliance with the provisions of international agreements, protocols, conventions and treaties on the environment including climate change, biodiversity conservation, desertification, forestry, oil and gas, chemicals, hazardous wastes, ozone depletion, marine and wild life, pollution, sanitation and such other environmental agreements as may from time to time come into force;


What Are The Powers Of The Agency?

The Agency has powers to:

• Prohibit processes and use of equipment or technology that undermine environmental quality;

• Conduct field follow up of compliance with set standards and take procedures prescribed by law against any violator;

• Subject to the provision of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999, and in collaboration with relevant judicial authorities establish mobile courts to expeditiously dispense cases of violation of environmental regulation.


The Federal Ministry of Environment (FME) administers and enforces environmental laws in Nigeria. It took over this function in 1999 from the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), which was created under the FEPA Act. FEPA was absorbed and its functions taken over by the FME in 1999. The Federal Ministry of Environment has published several guidelines for the administration of the FEPA and EIA Acts and procedures for evaluating environmental impact assessment reports (EIA Reports). Furthermore, the FEPA Act empowers the FME to require the production for examination of any licence or permit granted to any person, to enter and search any land or building, and to arrest any person whom they have reason to believe has violated any environmental regulation. The approach of regulatory agencies is the prevention of environmental damages, the regulation of potentially harmful activities and the punishment of wilful harmful damage whenever this occurs.

The environmental agencies also adopt the approach of engaging individuals and communities at risk of potential environmental damage in dialogue. The EIA approval process adopted by the FME involves a system of public hearings during the EIA evaluation process and interested members of the public are invited to such hearings.


However, pursuant to the FEPA Act, each State and Local Government in the country may set up its own environmental protection body for the protection and improvement of the environment within the State. Each State is also empowered to make laws to protect the environment within its jurisdiction.

All the States have environmental agencies and State laws; e.g. Abuja, the Federal Capita Territory has issued the Abuja Environmental Protection Board (Solid Waste Control/Environmental Monitoring) Regulations 2005 (“the Abuja Environmental Protection Board Regulations”) which principally governs solid waste control in Abuja. In Lagos State, the Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency Law, was enacted to establish the Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA). LASEPA’s functions include monitoring and controlling the disposal of waste in Lagos State and advising the State Government on all environmental management policies.

Lagos State has also enacted the Environmental Pollution Control Law, to provide for the control of pollution and protection of the environment from abuse due to poor waste management. Akwa Ibom State has enacted the Environmental Protection and Waste Management Agency Law, which established the Environmental Protection and Waste Management Agency. This Agency is charged with responsibilities which include identifying and proffering solutions to environmental protection problems in Akwa Ibom, and monitoring and enforcing environmental protection standards and regulations.


(3). Environmental Impact Assessment Act of 1992 (EIA Act).

The EIA Act was promulgated principally to enable the prior consideration of environmental impact assessment of public or private projects. Any person planning a project/activity which may have an impact on the environment is statutorily required to prepare an EIA Report, and the Report must set out the potential impact of the activity on the environment and plans for preventing/mitigating the same, as well as clean up plans. All such Reports must be approved by the FME. Attached to the EIA Act is a schedule of activities and industries for which environmental impact assessments are mandatory. These include Agriculture, Airport, Drainage and Irrigation, Land Reclamation, Fisheries, Forestry, Housing, Industry, Infrastructure, Ports, Mining, Petroleum, Power Generation and Transmission, Quarries, Railways, Transportation, Resort and Recreational Development, Waste Treatment and Disposal, and Water Supply. Any person who fails to comply with the provisions of the EIA Act commits an offence and is liable on conviction, in the case of an individual, to a fine or to a term of imprisonment for up to five years; and fines are also imposed on guilty firms or corporations.


(4) Harmful Wastes (Special Criminal Provisions) Act of 1988 Cap. 165 LFN.

This Act was enacted in the wake of the Koko saga, Section 1 makes it an offence for any person to carry, deposit, dump or be in possession of any harmful waste on Nigerian soil, inland water or seas. Section 2 of the Act lists parties to the crime, section 3 makes provisions for crimes committed in prosecution of a common purpose and section 5 includes the accessories after the fact. Any person found guilty of a crime under sections 1 to 5 of this Act shall be sentenced to imprisonment for life. And in addition,

  1.              i.    Any carrier, including aircraft, vehicle, container and any other thing whatsoever used in transportation or importation of the harmful waste.
  2.             ii.     Any land on which the harmful waste was deposited or dumped; shall be forfeited to and vest in the Federal Military Government, without any further assurance other than this Act. Other relevant sections are: Sections 9, 10, 11, 12 of the Act.


(5) National Environmental Health Practice Regulations 2007

These Regulations came into force in May, 2007 and the purpose of the Regulations as provided under Section 1 inter alia includes:-

(a)          To provide a guideline for the enforcement of the regulatory powers in the Act to prevent and abate nuisance and to protect, preserve, and promote the physical, mental, spiritual and social well-being of the public.

(b)          To prevent and control the incidence of communicable diseases through environmental health intervention.


The Practice Regulations contains 100 sections in eleven chapters where the duties and powers of Environmental Health Officers as well as the Health Authority are highlighted. This is in addition to two other important chapters which are chapters 12 and 13 on interpretations and schedules respectively.



Sections 8 — 10 of the Regulation provide that all owners of newly built premises are to apply for and obtain a certificate of fitness for habitation, while an owner of an existing premises shall cause to be inspected and be issued with a report, which shall qualify him for the issuance of a certificate of fitness for continued habitation or certificate of fitness for continued use.

Any licensed Environmental Health Officer is given the privilege of undertaking inspection of premises in this regard.


The 3 sections are reproduced below:

8. All owners of newly built premises shall apply for and obtain a certificate of fitness for habitation, as in schedule 1 to these Regulations before occupation from the Environmental Health Authority and for the purpose pay a prescribed fee.

9. (1) An owner of an existing premises shall, upon the commencement of these regulations cause to be inspected and be issued with a report which he shall present to the Environmental Health Authority for the issuance of fitness for continued use”, as in Schedule 1 to these Regulations and for this purpose pay a prescribed fee.

(2) The first certificate issued shall be valid for five years after inspection for every new building, thereafter, the building shall he issued “certificate of fitness for habitation”. “Continued habitation” or for “continued use” for a subsequent period of three years.

(3) After the issuance of a “certificate of fitness for continued habitation” or for “continued use” for a premises., any alteration in such a premises likely to threaten the health of occupants of the premises or their property shall render the certificate already issued for such purpose invalid.

(4) The Council shall from time to time issue operational guideline on the procedure for the inspection and issuance of related certificate, 10 any licensed Environmental Health Officer who undertakes such inspection shall submit a copy of the reports of such inspection to the Environmental Health Authority having jurisdiction over the area.

This function will give the Environmental Health Officers a lot to do. The Government will surely benefit in terms of revenue. But of concern is that we have only a few Environmental Health Officers on ground. The Government will need to employ more hands because in effect all existing premises in the State will have to be inspected. This is in addition to the new ones yet to be occupied and the certificates of fitness as aforesaid be issued. It is not a once and for all affairs. This may be five years in the first instance and thereafter every 3 years.


Section 12 (2) which provides that “Dead bodies shall be sanitarily disposed off or buried only in a place approved by the Environmental Health Authority in charge of the area” poses a new challenge which hitherto has not been tapped.

Burial Authorization: – No corpse shall be buried in or on any private premises unless the deceased was by customary law entitled to be buried thereon and the person responsible for burying the corpse has obtained a written authorization from a Health Officer for the burial of the corpse.

Section 77 of Chapter 9 deals with Emission limit permit It provides that:-

  1. Every owner of a motor vehicle or motorcycle shall cause to be assessed annually the emission permissible status of his vehicle to ensure that the emission level from such vehicle is within the permissible limit.
  2. This assessment shall be carried out by a designated person certified by relevant government agency or authority.
  3. The Environmental Health Authority, once satisfied that emission level of such a vehicle is within the permissible limit shall issue an Emission Limit Permit to such a vehicle for that year.
  4.  For the purpose of this section, Environmental Health Officers on duty with other relevant government agents shall have power to stop vehicle and demand for and examine the emission limits permit of such a vehicle or demand that the vehicle be taken to an appropriate facility for assessment or reassessment as the case may be”


Pollution control measure of this magnitude is necessary as its continuous unabatement constitutes danger to health of the public this is therefore a challenge to the Environmental Health Authority not to shy away from the execution of this aspect of the regulation.

Under this same chapter sections 81 and 82 provide for the noise pollution and radiation and health control respectively This is also an area which if not checked by the Health Authority noise pollution shall continue to be hazardous to the public health


Abatement of Nuisance Under Section 92 of the Practice Regulations

There is a similarity in what obtains under section 92 of the regulation and Section 8 of the Public Health Law only to the extent of service with the abatement notice.


Sections 92, 93 and 94 of the Regulation should be combined together and compared with section 8 of the Public Health Law.


Sections 92, 93 and 94 of the Practice Regulations are reproduced below:-


92 (1) An Environmental Health Officer shall if satisfied of the existence of a nuisance, serve a notice, hereinafter called an abatement notice (Schedule XV)


(a) On the person who causes or continuous to cause the nuisance or.

(b) If such person cannot be found on the premises occupier or owner or developer of the premises on which the nuisance was caused shall be served with notice requiring him to abate the nuisance within the time specified in the notice and to execute such works, and to do such things as may be necessary for that purpose and if the Environmental Health Officer thinks It desirable, may specify any work to be executed.


93 (1) Where an abatement notice has been served on a premises or industry and action is not taken within twenty four hours or as stated in such notice and if the Environmental Health Officer believes such a premises poses great danger to the public health, then, the Industry or the premises shall be sealed:

(2) A notice to seal any premises shall be signed by either the Head of the Local Government Environmental Authority, the Head of the State Environmental Head Authority or the representative of the Minister and posted in a conspicuous place in the premises. The notice to seal the premises shall be issued in the appropriate form as contained in schedule XIII to this Regulation; See Annexure A

(3) A notice to seal premises shall be deemed to have been served properly if it is served on an adult person in the premises, fixed in a conspicuous place in the premises or at the registered office of the company;

(4) A premises sealed under this section shall remain sealed under this section shall remain sealed until such a time when the reason for sealing of the premises has been rectified and the premises or any part thereof is no more a threat to Public health or Public safety.


94. Environmental and Hearth safety concerns shall prevail over any other considerations when carrying out environmental Health Services.

All that is required is that once an abatement notice has been served on a premises or industry on which a nuisance was caused and if the Environmental Health Officer is satisfied that the premises poses great danger to the health of the public and an action is not taken within twenty four hours, the premises may be ordered to be sealed, until the time when the officer ordering the sealing is satisfied that the nuisance no longer exist provided that the authority sealing the premises shall depose to an affidavit stating the facts about the nuisances found in the premises and its great danger to health. This must be attached to the Sealing Order Form and brought to a magistrate for approval. Once this is done the premises shall be sealed.


Section 99 of the Regulations provides for the penalty of any person or establishment that contravenes any of the provisions of the Practice Regulations. On conviction, such an offender will be liable to a fine not exceeding two hundred thousand Naira (N200, 000.00).


This penalty is unprecedented when we consider it with the fines we have in all the health laws existing before the Regulation came into effect on 8th May 2007. Since the Public Health Law, the Bye Laws and even the State Waste Management Law, are still subsisting; it is my belief that the court may be faced with the imposition of different penalties even for the same or similar charge preferred against different health offenders.


Among other federal enactments are:

(i) The Oil in Navigable Waters Act, 1968 which specifically states offences, defenses and penalties.


(ii) Petroleum Act (Cap. 350), LFN, 1990.


(iii) The River Basin Development Act (Cap. 269) LFN



Having reviewed most of the laws, decrees and Acts that are relevant to and are of environmental/public health impact in Nigeria, it is apt to affirm the notorious fact that Nigeria as a nation since imperative to state that Nigeria as a nation since 1917 has had in place laws, decrees and Acts that are relevant to and are of environmental/public health impact and has progressively continued to develop on it.


There is no gain saying the fact that laws carries sanction and people in fear of being sanctioned often respect and obey laws. There has never being any study to give direction on whether our people obey laws, decrees and Acts that are relevant to and are of environmental/public health for the health benefit of fear of sanction and penalty that comes with non-compliance. Suffice to say that when people obey environmental/public health laws, the environment is made safe, healthy and conducive for human activities in a manner that the future use of this environment is guaranteed, while still adequately meeting up with the demand of the present, this is the principle of sustainable development.


I must quickly add that whenever and wherever environmental/public health laws are demeaned, there is always attendant environmental/public health crisis. No wonder that adherence to laws, decrees and Acts that are of environmental/public has hitherto played major role in the successes recorded in our current campaign and eradication of several endemic and communicable diseases like yawn, drancutiasis, smallpox and to some extent onchocerciasis and polio.

The environmental/public health regulators need to move a step further by educating the populace about the importance of obeying these environmental/public health laws both at promoting healthy living and at sustaining the environment. Environmental health officer by training is a health educator and a social mobiliser.


It reminds one of the military administrations of Major Generals Mohammed Buhari (Rtd.)/Tunde Idiagbon (late) as they then was who introduced the “War Against Indiscipline and Corruption”. You will all agreed with me that it was the regime also introduced the monthly sanitation in the country, thus the level of environmental/public health consciousness was at its peak then and every citizen of Nigeria knew what it means to be clean minded as you dare not urinate, defeacate or drop refuse or waste in the public places or indiscriminately.


My dear sanitarians, I want to submit that legal intervention has positively impacted on environmental health management and control. Our courts have also being forthcoming in the implementation, interpretation and prosecution of sanitary offenders or environment violators.

This act of our laws, decrees and Acts makers and the courts have assisted in taming the environment, so that it no longer constitute danger or pose threat to human existence within the ambit of the environment.


The above interventions and impact of laws, decrees of environmental/public health notwithstanding, there is still the danger of policy summersault that is not too healthy in the implementation of environmental/public health laws. These among others include:

a)    environmental/public health policies/regulations that do not carry sanctions

b)    inadequate re-training of environmental health officers in are of professional challenges

c)    lacklustre attitude of court administrators on matter relating to environmental/public health laws

d)    inadequate funding of environmental/public health activities

e)    poor remuneration of environmental/public health officers

f)     poor or inadequate logistics for effective performance of environmental/public health regulators

g)    Lack of coordinate cooperation, understanding, intersectoral and interdepartmental synergy among the environmental/public health regulators among several others.



The Nigerian legal system has had a lot of influence from English law on its growth. Right now, English law forms a substantial part of Nigerian law. However, the Nigerian legal system is somewhat complex, and has several sub-systems.

  • At the Federal level, there is a general federal legal system that is applicable throughout the country.
  • At the lower levels, each state (including Abuja) has its own legal system.
  • Also, local customs are applicable laws in some states.



Public law is the part of the law that deals mainly with the state. It controls the relationship between different parts of the government, as well as the relationship between individuals and the state. It is criminal in nature.

The main parts of public law are:

  • Criminal Law: the part of the law that deals with crimes being committed and punishment of those crimes. Criminal law is that part of the law dealing with crimes being committed. A crime or an offense is an act or omission punishable by the state, which is already contained as an ‘offense’ in the written law. Criminal proceedings are carried out mainly to punish the ‘wrongdoer’. Criminal proceedings are controlled by the state although private persons may sometimes institute such proceedings.

In the southern states, crimes are classified by the seriousness of the crime, which can be a:

  • felony
  • misdemeanour
  • simple offense

The seriousness of the crime is supposed to determine the length of jail time and/or the bail amount.

(I don’t know if the northern states have the same classification or not.)

Southern states also classify crimes by whether they are indictable or non indictable offence is any offence which on conviction may be punished by a term of imprisonment exceeding two years or by imposition of a fine exceeding N500.00. (Section 2 Magistrates’ Courts Law, Lagos, 2004.) Indictable offenses are based on being previously written in the law, or have a certain bail amount, or have a certain jail term to be served, while Non-indictable offence is any offence other than indictable offence.


  • Constitutional Law: the part of the law that deals with
    • the structure of different parts of the government
    • the relationship between them
    • their principal functions
  • Administrative Law: the part of the law that deals with the functions of the different government agencies.
  • Revenue Law: the part of the law that controls taxation and other sources of government revenue.



Private law is the part of the law that deals mainly with the relationship between individuals. It is civil in nature. Civil law is the law governing conduct which is generally not punishable by state. Civil proceedings are carried out mainly to enable people to enforce their rights and receive compensation for injuries that other people have caused to them. Civil proceedings are usually taken by individuals, but the state may be a party to the civil proceeding.

Private law includes, but not limited to:

  • Law of Contract: when a written agreement is violated.
  • Law of Tort: when a non-written agreement is violated.
  • Law of Trust: when someone is supposed to deal with property for the interest of someone else.
  • Law of Property: this controls title or interest in property. This can be further divided into:
    • real property (like real estate)
    • personal property, which can be further divided into:
      • tangible property (property that can be touched, like stocks, etc.)
      • intangible property (property that can not be touched, like copyrights, etc.)
  • Company Law: the part of the law that governs the association of different people having a common object like a business undertaking.
  • Partnership Law: governs the agreements between two or more people who have agreed to carry on a business and share the profits and losses in predetermined proportions.
  • Commercial Law: controls trade and commerce.
  • Family Law: deals with family issues such as marriage, parent-and-child relationships, custody, adoption, etc.
  • Law of Succession: governs how property is passed on after someone dies.
  • Private International Law: deals with cases that involve more than one legal system.
  • Law of Evidence: relates to proof that is provided in a court room.
  • Law of Remedies: governs the remedies given by the court for an offense.
    • Damages: when money is offered as compensation for the offense.
    • Mandatory Injunction: when the court orders an individual to perform a certain act.
    • Prohibitive Injunction: when the court orders an individual NOT to perform a certain act, or to STOP performing a certain act.
    • Specific Performance: when the court orders someone to fulfil an obligation. [5]


The sources of Nigerian law are:

  1. Nigerian legislation
  2. English law which consists of:
    1. the received English law which was introduced into Nigerian law by Nigerian Legislature, and consists of:
      1. the common law
      2. the doctrines of equity
      3. statutes of general application in force in England on January 1, 1900
      4. statutes of subsidiary legislation on specified matters
    2. English law made before October 1, 1960 (independence day) and extending to Nigeria (and was introduced into Nigerian law by the English Legislation, and must be repealed by the appropriate authority in Nigeria before it is no longer applicable in Nigeria, regardless of it’s applicability in England).
  3. Customary law
  4. Judicial precedents: the principle of law on which a judicial decision is based.


Nigerian legislation consists of:

  • Statutes: laws enacted by the Legislature (which is a part of the government). This further consists of:
    • Ordinances: laws passed by the Nigerian Central Legislature before October 1, 1954.
    • Acts: an enactment made by the Federal Legislature before January 16, 1966 and at the onset of this current democratic dispensation effective 29th May 1999.
    • Laws: any enactment made by the Legislature of a region or of a State House of Assembly having effect as if made by that Legislature, or any subordinate legislation.
    • Decrees: an enactment made by the Federal Military Government.
    • Edicts: enactment made by a military governor, or by the administrator of a State.
    • Bye-laws: any enactment made by the Councillors or the Legislature of a Local Government in Nigeria having effect as if made by that Legislature with a jurisdictional scope limited to the Local Government enacting the bye-law.
  • Subsidiary Legislation: laws enacted in the exercise of powers given by a statute.


Customary Law

Customary law consists of customs that people in a certain community hold as being binding to them, and recognized as law by them. Customary laws may be relevant for certain ethnic groups, or certain religions, and sometimes even for certain states.
Ethnic customary law for the most part is unwritten, and of course, may adjust with the times. Religious customary law can usually be found in the applicable ‘book’.

There are two ways of establishing customary laws before the courts:

  1. By Proof: proving it to the court
  2. By Judicial Notice: obvious facts that don’t need to be proved

The method of proof will differ between customary courts and non-customary courts.


Before going further, a few definitions will be made:

  • Superior Court: Courts that have ‘unlimited’ jurisdiction.
  • Inferior Court: Courts whose jurisdiction limits depend on the type and value of the subject matter.
  • Court of Record: A court which has all matters dealt with documented and same can be recall, if and when the need arises and has the power to punish contempt.


Nigerian courts fall into the following levels:

  • Supreme Court: It is established under Section 230 of the 1999 Constitution. It has no original criminal jurisdiction. It only entertains criminal appeals from Court of Appeal – Section 233 (1) of the 1999 Constitution. This is a superior court of record, and the highest level of courts in Nigeria.
  • Court of Appeal: It is established under Section 237 of the 1999 Constitution. It has no original criminal jurisdiction. It only exercises appellate criminal jurisdiction from decisions of the State and federal High court, the High Court of the FCT and the Court Martial – Section 240 of the 1999 Constitution. This is a superior court (of record). It is mainly a court of appeal, and has exclusive jurisdiction to hear appeals from the State High Courts, the Federal Revenue Court now Federal High Courts, and other courts as specified by law.
  • Courts of Resolution: This is a court mostly in the northern states, and it has the jurisdiction to resolve conflicts between the High Court and the Sharia Court of Appeal., or to decide which court has jurisdiction in cases where both decide that they do not have the jurisdiction.
  • Sharia Courts of Appeal: This is a superior customary court of record which hears appeals from the Upper Area courts in cases on the Northern States and the Federal Capital Territory that involve Muslim personal law.
  • Customary Courts of Appeal: This is a superior customary court of record which hears appeals from the customary courts in cases that involve customary and personal laws. It is for the Southern states and Federal Capital Territory.
  • Federal High Court: The Federal High Court was first established by the Federal Revenue Court Act of 1973 and known under that statute as the Federal Revenue Court. It was restyled the Federal High Court by section 230 (2) of the Constitution 1979, now Section 249 of the 1999 Constitution. The criminal jurisdiction of FHC is provided in Section 251 (20 and (3) of 1999 Constitution. This court operates in at least 9 judicial divisions with more is still being established, and in the end, covers the entire country. The area of each division is determined by the president of the court. Most of its cases have to deal with matters of revenue.
  • State High Courts: It is established under Section 270 of the 1999 Constitution. There is a single court for each State; the division of a State into judicial divisions is for administrative conveniences. These are courts set up in each state. If customary and area courts exist in the state, the High courts do not deal with Customary laws. Their jurisdiction is usually determined by the subject type and the monetary value. They can hear appeals from the lower courts.
  • Magistrate Courts: Every state has a magistrate court. The magistrates in each state are divided into a number of classes, and the classification determines the level of jurisdiction and the powers that each magistrate owns. Magistrates are appointed, and the rules and classifications can differ from state to state.
  • District Courts: These courts exist in some of the Northern states. Their jurisdiction involves civil cases dealing with monetary issues within a certain value.
  • Customary and Area Courts: These courts exist in many states, and deal with issues that are covered in the customary law. They are under the control and supervision of the Minister of Justice of the state. They have unlimited civil jurisdiction in cases of family law, and criminal jurisdiction in a few areas.
  • Juvenile Courts: Some states have special courts that are established for the trial of young offenders, and for the welfare of the young. They mainly consist of a magistrate and some other members.
  • Coroners: A coroner is a person that can hold inquests on the body of a deceased person who seems to have died a violent or unnatural death, or a body that belong to any other class specified by the appropriate Coroner’s law. Coroners can be Magistrates or other people. The main purpose would be to investigate the cause of death.
  • National Industrial Courts: These courts deal with trade disputes (any dispute between employees, or between employees and their employer) and collective agreements (disputes between different organizations and/or employers).
  • Military Courts: These courts exist in some parts of the country, and their jurisdiction is limited to members of the military.
  • Tribunals: These are bodies performing judicial or quasi-judicial functions. They have been determined by the legislature to be experts in a particular area of the law, and are given permission to deal with a certain area of the law[6]



Section 72 of the Public Health Law of 1957 states that “A health officer whilst acting as such shall have all the powers and privileges which could be exercised, or would be possessed by a Police officer (emphasis mine) for the purpose of enforcing the provisions of this Law including the power of such officer:

a)    of detaining or arresting any person who has, or is reasonably suspected of having, committed an offence against the law;

b)    to appear for the prosecution of such offences in a magistrate’s court or a customary court.

[Police Act 1967 No. 41: Chapter P19, Part IV Section 23 on Powers of Police Officer “Subject to the provisions of sections 160 and 191 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (which relate to the power of the Attorney-General of the Federation and of a State to institute and undertake, take over and continue or discontinue criminal proceedings against any person before any court of law in Nigeria), any police officer may conduct in person all prosecutions before any court whether or not the information or complaint is laid in his name”] 


Flowing from the above, Environmental Health Officers has enormous duties and power when it comes to environmental management and control. The health officer has the power to enter any premises at any time (Section 10 of the Public Health Law of 1957) for the purpose of examining as to the existence thereon of any nuisance.

Part I, Section 2 of the Public Health Law of 1957, define premises to means and includes messuages, buildings, lands, tenements, hereditaments, vehicles, tents, vans, structures of any kind, drains, ditches or places open, covered or enclosed, and any ship or vessel in any port or on any inland waters.


The law in Section 7 of the Public Health Law of 1957 empowers a health officer, if satisfied of the existence of a nuisance (Section 6 of the Public Health Law of 1957) to serve a notice called Abatement notice. This is the commencement of legal intervention in environmental health management and control. The non-compliance with the content of the abatement notice after the effusion of given time will lead to issuance of a Court summon.


What is a Court Summon? Is a processes to compel attendance of a court by an accused person, there are three different ways of securing the appearance of an accused before the court which will try him. These are:

(a) By summons

(b) By Arrest on Warrant and

(c) By Arrest without Warrant

Summons is usually preceded by a complaint laid before a magistrate or a judge.

Note: that a summons to appear and a warrant of arrest may be issued on or served on any day including – a Sunday or public holiday. See section 24 Criminal Procedure Act and 82 Criminal Procedure Act


Who may issue summons: A summons to appear may be issued by a court against any suspect.  Section 8 of the Public Health Law of 1957, Section 80 Criminal Procedure Act and section 47(1) Criminal Procedure Code.  Such a summon, must state in writing the substance of complaint, name of the accused, the date of issue, and must be in duplicate, signed by the Magistrate.


Manner of Service – Summons should normally be served personally on the person summoned. Part VIII, Section 68 of the Public Health Law of 1957, section 89(a) Criminal Procedure Act  and section 49(1) Criminal Procedure Code.

Manner of substituted service:

This may be done, by leaving a copy of the summons with an adult male member of the accused family, occupier or affixed to a conspicuous part of the premises in which the accused ordinarily resides. Note the need for leave of court before substituted service.


Mode of receipt of service: Person served must acknowledge receipt by signing the back of the duplicate.

Note: that a person who refuses to sign such duplicate may be detained or committed to prison when the Court is formally informed as the act will be viewed by the Court as contempt.


What is Contempt of Court? Contempt of Court has variously been defined as:

a)    ‘Scorn, disgrace, disregard of the rule or an offence against the dignity of the court…’See Chambers English Dictionary 7th Ed.

b)    ‘any act which is calculated to embarrass, hinder or obstruct the court in administration of justice or which is calculated to lessen its authority or dignity and to adversely affect the confidence of the public in the courts ability to dispense justice’. See Blacks Law Dictionary, 6th Ed.

c)    ‘any conduct which tends to bring into disrespect, scorn or disrepute the authority and administration of the law or which tends to interfere with and/or prejudice litigants and/or their, witnesses in the course of litigation’.- per Idigbe JSC in Atake v. A. G. FED.  & anor  (1972) 11 SC 175

d)    ‘action or inaction amounting to an interference with or obstruction or having a tendency to interfere with or obstruct the administration or justice’. See Awobokun v. Adeyemi. (1968) NMLR 289.

The purpose of the power of court to punish for contempt is to preserve the honor of the court and to prevent undue interference with the administration of justice, but not to bolster up the power and dignity of the Judge as an individual. (See Parashuram Detram Shamdasan v King Emperor. (1945) AC (a) 268)


There are 2 types of contempt: Criminal and Civil Contempt.


Criminal Contempt: These are words or acts which obstruct or tend to obstruct or interfere with the administration of justice. It is an offence upon the court. Examples –

  1. To call a judge a liar.
  2. To allege that he is partial. VIDYSAGARA v. THE QUEEN 1963 AC 589.
  3. To say in the course of judgment, ‘that is a most unjust remark’. STAFFORD COUNTRY JUDGE 1888 – 57 LTQB 483 JORDAN 36 289.
  4. Comments that scandalize the court (oral and written).
  5. Insulting language, disrespectful attitude, acts of violence.
  6. Private communication with a judge to influence his judgment (whether or not accompanied with a bribe). See Awobokun v. Adeyemi (supra)


Civil contempt: This means contempt in procedure, consisting of disobedience to the judgments, orders or other process of court. It involves a private injury – in other words, it violates the rights of a person who benefits under a judgment or order, when such judgment or order is flouted.


Nature of Contempt: Contempt can either be in the face of the court – In-facie curie or outside the face of the court – ex-facie curie.


Contempt in-facie-curie: This means contempt committed in the face of the court, in other words contempt committed in the immediate view of the court room or so near the presence of the court, which obstructs or interferes with due administration of justice or is calculated to do so.


Contempt ex-facie-curie: This means contempt committed outside the face of the court. It consists of words (spoken or published) or acts outside the court which are intended or likely to interfere with or obstruct the fair administration of justice. See Dr. OLU ONAGORUWA FCA/E/117/79/NO 5/2/80. Examples are: Refusal to obey a lawful order of court such as an injunction.

Civil contempt falls under the category of contempt ex facie curiae.  See generally – OBIEKWE ANIWETA v. THE STATE FSA/E/47/78 delivered on 16.8.78, Awobokun v. Adeyemi (1968) NMLR 289 at 294, Afe Babalola v. Federal Electoral Commission & anor, Suit No: AK/MA/77 of 21.2.78


Acts that amount to Contempt of Court

a)    A breach of the duty to respect the judge may amount to contempt.

b)    However it is not every act of discourtesy that amounts to contempt. See Izuora v. R    13 WACA p. 313.

c)    It may not be possible to particularize the act that constitutes contempt. See Agbachom v. The State (1970) 1 All NLR p. 69

d)    A fair and civil criticism made against a judge may not amount to contempt (even if it is strongly worded). See Okoduwa v. State (1988) 3 SCNJ 110


The following acts would amount to contempt of court –

a)    Impeding service of court process.

b)    Neglect of duties by Sheriffs and other officers of court.

c)    Disobedience to a sub poena.

d)    Refusal of witness to answer questions.

e)    Insulting or Outrageous or Scandalous language to court.

f)     Publication in a newspaper or article containing scurrilous personal abuse of a judge, with reference to his conduct as a judge in a judicial proceeding which has terminated.

g)    Publication in the newspaper misrepresenting court proceeding. See S. 133(4) of the Criminal Code.

h)   A letter accusing a Judge of bias is contemptuous. See Deduwa v. The State

            (1975) 1 ALL NLR (pt. 1) 1


Proof of Contempt

Contempt of court is a quasi-criminal offence and the standard of proof is beyond reasonable doubt. See Agbachom v. The State      (1970) 1 ALL NLR 71, See also Awobokun v. Adeyemi (supra)

a)    Even a civil contempt such as refusal to obey a court injunction must be proved beyond reasonable doubt. See American Int. Security and Telecommunications systems(Nig) ltd v. Eugene Peterson & & anor Suit no: FRC/L/1077 of 27.10.78



a)    For contempt in facie curiae, the High Court can deal summarily with the contemnor. The Judicial officer before whom the contempt is committed can put the contemnor in the dock (not the witness box) and ask him to show cause why he should not be punished.

b)    However, the court must exercise caution. See Awobokun v. Adeyemi

c)    The contemnor must be given fair hearing in accordance with the rules of natural justice.

d)    Putting the contemnor in the dock is so as not to infringe his constitutional rights that no person accused of a crime shall be compelled to give evidence. S.36 (11) CFRN 1999.

e)    The cases to be tried summarily should be such that the facts are so notorious as to be virtually incontestable.

f)     When a contempt is not committed in the face of the court, a judge who has been personally attacked should not as far as possible hear the case. See Awobokun v. Adeyemi (supra)

g)    A court may also adopt the procedure of apprehension/arrest, charge, prosecution etc. instead of the summary trial (where the act amounts to contempt ex facie). See Boyo v. A. G. Mid-West (1971) 1 ALL NLR 342, Oku v. The State (1970) 1 ALL NLR p. 60, Maharaj v. A. G. for Trinidad and Tobago (1977) 1 ALL NLR 411


Jurisdiction of Courts to Punish for Contempt

a)    The inherent power of the High Court to punish for contempt summarily is for the preservation of the honor of the court, not for the personal aggrandizement of the Judge. See Obiekwe Aniweta v. The State (supra), Deduwa v. Okorodudu (1975) 2 SC p. 37

b)    However, the power must be exercised with caution. See Awobokun v. Adeyemi (supra)

c)    Under S. 133 C. C. and S. 155 P. C., any person who commits contempt as defined under the respective codes can be charged in a magistrate court and tried under the CPC and CPA respectively.


Punishment for Contempt

a)    Contempt is viewed seriously and should be very sternly dealt with and in good time. See in Re Boyo (1970) 1 ALL NLR 116

b)    The punishment is imprisonment, sometimes with option of fine. A contemnor may also be ordered to execute a security bond to be of good behavior for a stated period. See Kitkat v. Sharp (1882) 52 LJ ch. 134

c)    A contemnor may be ordered to be kept in prison until he is purged of contempt. See Ikabala v. Ojosipe Suit no: LD/967/71 OF 30.3.72

d)    A contemnor whose conduct is unintentional, and who purges his contempt by an apology + credible explanation will be pardoned. See The State v. Ekundayo & & anor.         KWS/106/77 OF 2.9.77

e)    Contempt under S. 133 C. C. carries a maximum of 3 months. Okoma v. Udoh (2002)1 NWLR (pt. 748) 438

f)     Civil contempt carries a maximum of 6 months imprisonment.

See Afe Babalola v. Fedeco & & & anor AK/ML/77 of 21.2.78 at 17-23


Commencement of trial

The accused shall appear or be brought before the court, and the charge shall be read and explained to him to the satisfaction of the court by the registrar. He shall thereafter be asked to plead to the charge. See section 187(1) Criminal Procedure Code and section 215 Criminal Procedure Act. This is called arraignment. See Kajubo versus the State (1988) 1. NWLR 72 (Pt. 73). Ogunye versus State (1999) 5 NWLR (Pt. 604) 548; Kalu versus State (1998) 13 NWLR (Pt. 583, 531) See also Yahaya vs. the State (2002) FWCR (pt 93) P. 2044


Options open to an accused:

(i)  Preliminary objection

He may raise a preliminary objection to the jurisdiction of the court to try him or to a defect in the charge. His objection shall be duly considered and if upheld, he shall be discharged. However, if overruled, then he shall be asked to plead.

(ii) Refusal to plead:

He may refuse to plead to the charge. He shall thereafter be asked by the court for his reasons.  Where the court is of the view that those reasons are not valid and the accused still refuses to plead, a plea of not guilty” shall be entered on his behalf and the trial shall proceed. See Gaji versus the State (1975) 5 S.C. 60. See also section 220 Criminal Procedure Act and section 188 Criminal Procedure Code.

(iii) Stand mute:

He may stand mute and the court shall call evidence to determine whether his muteness is of malice or due to the visitation of God. If the Court finds that his muteness is of malice, a plea of not guilty shall be entered and the trial shall proceed. See Yesufu versus The State ( 1972) 12 S.C. 143, and The State versus  Sawyer C.C.H.C.H/4/73 at page 11. However, if his muteness is of the visitation of God (e.g. insanity) the trial shall not proceed and the accused shall be ordered to be detained until the pleasure of the Governor is known. See R. versus  Ogor (1961) 1 All NLR 70. Where the accused is found to be deaf and or dumb, the court shall further take evidence to determine whether the’ , accused can be made to understand and follow the proceedings. If so, trial shall proceed; if not, the accused shall be remanded in custody or released on bail until the visitation is over, or until the Governor’s pleasure is known.

(iv)  Plea of guilty:

The accused may plead guilty to the charge. Such a plea of guilty shall be recorded by the court as nearly as possible in the words used by the accused. If the court is satisfied that by the plea, the accused intends to admit the truth of the essentials of the offence, it may proceed to convict him on the plea. See section 215: Criminal Procedure Act  and sections 187 and 161(3) Criminal Procedure Code.  See also Aremu versus  The COP (1980) 2 N.C.R. 315; Ahmed versus The C. O.P (1971) N. M.L.R..409; Osuji versus  The Police ( 1965) L.L.R. 143; Idah versus  The Police (1964) NMLR 103.


Effect of plea of guilty:

The plea of the accused must not be ambiguous, otherwise the court shall not convict upon it. See Onuoha versus  The Police (1956) N.NLR 96.

Facts stated by the prosecution must support the charge to which the accused has pleaded guilty otherwise the court shall not convict. See Abele versus  Tiv N. A. (1965) N.NLR 425.

Where the plea of guilty is inconsistent with any statement made by the accused either to the police or in court, he shall not be convicted on his plea: See R. versus  The Middlesex Justice Exparte Rubens (1970) 54 Cr. App. Rep. 183:

Where the offence to which the accused has pleaded can only be constituted by expert evidence, such ‘evidence must be tendered before he can be convicted on his plea. See Stevenson versus  The Police (1966) 2 All NLR 261; See also Ishola versus  The State (1969) NMLR 259. Note: Essien versus  The King 13 W.A.C.A 6.

 (v).   Plea of not guilty:

The accused may make a plea of not guilty. in which case he shall be deemed to have put himself upon his trial See section 217 Criminal Procedure Act  and section 188 Criminal Procedure Code.

(vi).   Plea of not guilty by reason of insanity:

The accused may plead not guilty by reason of insanity and the court shall proceed with trial and determine:

(a)      whether the accused did commit the offence; and

(b)     whether he was insane at the time of committing the offence. if the accused is found not to have committed the offence, he shall be discharged and the court shall not decide the issue of insanity.

If he is found to have committed the offence and to be insane at the time of committing it, he shall be remanded in prison custody until the Governor’s pleasure is known. See R. versus Ogor (1961) 1 All NLR 70.

(vii).    Plea of autrefois acquit or autrefois convict:

The accused may make a special plea of autrefois acquit or autrefois convict which has been provided for in section 36(9) of the Constitution , that: “No person who shows that he has been tried by a competent court for a Criminal offence and either convicted or acquitted shall again be tried for that offence or for a Criminal offence, having the same ingredients as that offence, save upon the order of a superior court”. See also sections   221, 181 Criminal Procedure Act and 223 Criminal Procedure Code.  This issue of this special plea shall be tried by the court and if found proved, the accused shall be discharged. If found not proved, the accused shall be asked to enter a plea and the court shall proceed with the trial.


Making and recording of plea:

Plea must be made by the accused and not by his counsel, unless the presence of the accused at the trial could be dispensed with. See R. versus Pepple and Another   ( 1949) 12 W.A.C.A. 441.

The plea must be recorded by the court before the trial can proceed. See Sanmabo versus The State (1967) NNLR 314. When the accused is charged with more than one offence, a plea must be obtained and recorded in respect of each offence. See The Police versus Rosseck (1958) L.L.R. 73. Note: Akinde versus The Attorney General S.C. 1251 1965 decided on 30/4/65 and Ayinde versus The State (1980) N.C.R. 242.


What is a charge: A charge is a document containing the statement and particulars of offence(s) with which a person is accused and tried before a court of law. In the magistrates’ courts in the South and the courts of the Northern States, it is referred to as a charge, while in the High Court in the South as information. It is usually drafted and signed by the appropriate authorities, having power to charge an accused person. In the High-Court, a law officer or private prosecutor can sign an information.


Rules guiding the drafting of Charges

a)    Rule against ambiguity,

b)    Rule against duplicity

c)    Rule against misjoinder of offenders

d)    Rule against misjoiner of offences

Rule against ambiguity: This rule postulates that a charge must be clear enough as to give the accused person adequate notice of the offence with which he is charged. Consequently, the rule attaches itself more particularly on the Count or, each of the Counts contained in the charge sheet or information.

A good charge free from ambiguity will reflect, in this order, the following:

a)    the name of the accused;

b)    date of commission of the offence

c)    place of commission of the offence

d)    the description of the offence by the name giving to the offence by the law creating it where the law defines the offence; or so much of the particulars of the offence as will give the accused sufficient notice of the charge against him; or person against whom the name of the thing in respect of which the offence was committed.

e)    the section of the law under which the accused will be punished and the law itself.

(Sections 151 and 152(1) Criminal Procedure Act Sections 201 and 202 Criminal Procedure Code, Garba versus State (1999) 11 N. W.L.R. (Pt 627) 422.) 


Effect of non-compliance:

As the whole essence of this rule is to give an accused person notice of the charge against him some errors on the part of the prosecutor will not essentially invalidate the charge or lead the court to set aside any conviction, based on the charge. (Duru versus the Police (1960) L.L.R 130. The court held that the errors in the charges were fundamental in Okeke versus The Police (1965) 2 All NLR 81).

Generally, the court does not regard any omission or errors in the charge as material except the accused was in fact misled by such error or omission.

In Obakpolor versus  The State (1991) 1 N.W.L.R, 113, the Supreme Court held that objection to a defective charge should be made immediately after the charge is read over and explained to accused because pleading to such a charge is a submission to jurisdiction, if the defect does not deprive the court of its jurisdiction.


Rule against duplicity: This rule addresses the count in the charge as in the case of ambiguity. What the rule however forbids is that no count shall contain more than one offence except in permitted circumstances dictated by a statute. A charge is therefore bad for duplicity if it contains more than one offence. (Section 156 Criminal Procedure Act. Also Okeke versus the Police 10 W.A.C.A, 363; Awobotu versus the State (1976) 5 S.C. 49 Adebayo versus The State (1987) 2 N. W.L.R. 468 (Pt. 57). An accused must be charged for each of the offences committed by him separately on the charge sheet or information.


Effect of duplicity

A charge that is bad for duplicity does not necessarily invalidate the charge or the trial except it has occasioned a miscarriage of justice. (Awobotu versus The State (1976) 5 S.C. 49)


Rule against misjoinder of offenders: This rule forbids joining offenders together in a cause or matter before the court. Thus, generally, only an accused should be charged in the charge sheet, for the offence(s) committed by him. There are instances however in which it is permissible to join and try more than one accused person together. When more persons than one are accused of the same offence, they may be charged and tried together. (Okojie versus The Police (1961) W.NLR 91)


Rule against misjoinder of offences: Generally, every distinct offence with which any person is accused shall be charged separately. (Sections 157 – 161 of the Criminal Procedure Act and sections 213 – 216 Criminal Procedure Code)


Amendment of charges

Who has the authority to amend?

(a)        The person who drafted the charge: The law permits the person who drafted the charge to alter the charge upon discovery of any error or in a bid to adding more counts to the existing ones. Note that in the South, the Police, the Law Officer or any other person as the case may be, is authorised to charge any person before a court and may therefore amend such charge. (section 162 Criminal Procedure Act , section 78(b) of Criminal Procedure Act  See also The State versus  Chief Magistrate Mbashi Experte Onukwe (1978) 1 L.RN. 316)

Note that if the amendment is after the commencement of the. trial, it has to be by the leave of the court.

(b)        (b) The court can also amend a charge upon which an accused is tried before it. The court can equally amend the charge at any time before judgment. Note however that the amendment by the court must be sustainable under the imperfect charge. The new charge should merely continue the life of the original charge. It must bear the same charge number and be against the same accused person(s). It cannot be an independent separate charge, co-existing with the original charge. (Chief Magistrate Mbashi Experte Onukwe (1978) 1 L.RN. 316), Okwechime versus The Police (1956)-1 F.S.C. 73).

Note: the court should not permit the amendment of a charge if it will cause injustice to the accused. (R. versus Jennings 33 Criminal App. Rep. 143)


Failure to amend a defective charge:

The effect of failure on the part of the prosecutor to amend a defective charge depends on the nature of the defect. There are some defects which the law regards as substantial and upon which conviction cannot be made. In such cases, the appellate court will set aside a conviction based on a charge that is fundamentally defective, except before judgment there was amendment. (Okeke versus The Police (supra), The A. G. (Federation) versus Dr Clement Isong (1986) 1 Q.L.R.N. 75;


For example where the information refers to a repealed enactment and there is no similar offence known to the law, the error would be regarded as material and fundamental and will undoubtedly mislead the accused. (R. versus  Osunremi (1961) 1 All NLR 467) In such a case there should be amendment of the charge before judgment. If not, the trials will be vitiated.


On the other hand, some defects are regarded as minor by the courts. Such defects are incapable of misleading the accused person and failure to amend such charges are usually overlooked by the courts. The law distinguishes between omissions or errors which are trivial and immaterial and will not vitiate a trial, and those which are material and will vitiate a trial.


A conviction founded upon a defective charge under the former category stand because the dictate of justice do not permit the acquittal of an otherwise guilty accused person upon fanciful errors contained in the charge. (Ogbomor versus The State (1985) 1 NWLR 223 (Pt. 2), Duru versus The Police (1960) L.L.R. 130; Ogbodu versus The State (1987) 3 S. C. 497)


Procedure after amendment

The new charge shall be read and explained to the accused person and he shall be asked to plead to the charge. (Sections 163 and 164 Criminal Procedure Act; section 208(2)Criminal Procedure Code, Youngman versus  The police (1959) 4F.S.C. 283; Okosun versus  The State (1978) 2L.R.N.,314; Okegbu versus  The State (1981) 2 P.S.L.R. 14)

Note that where a trial before a Magistrate Court was a: result of the accused election to be tried by the Magistrate Court, apart from a fresh plea, his consent should also be sought afresh as to whether he still intends to be tried by the Magistrate Court, (Youngman versus The Police (supra); Jones versus The Police 5 F S.C. 38.)


The court shall ask the accused whether he is ready to be tried on such charge. (Section 164 (1) Criminal Procedure Act)

Either the accused or the prosecutor shall be given adjournment or a new trial order if to proceed immediately with the trial shall prejudice the accused in his defence or the prosecutor in the conduct of his case. (Section 164(2) (3) Criminal Procedure Act; sections 209 and 210 Criminal Procedure Code.)

The Court shall endorse a note to order for amendment on the charge. (Section 164(4) Criminal Procedure Act)

The prosecutor and the accused shall be allowed to recall or re-summon any witness who may have been examined and examine or cross-examine such with reference to such amendment. (Section 165 Criminal Procedure Act, Section 211 Criminal Procedure Code)

Note where the accused is unrepresented by counsel, the court must specifically inform him of this right. If he is represented, the court is not obliged to inform him. (Shoaga versus  R. (1952) 14 W.A.C.A.22, Fayiga versus  The Police (1973):5 C.C.H.C.H35, Osuolale versus  The State (1991)


Effect of failure to comply with procedure after amendment:

Failure to comply with the statutory requirements render the trial null, void and of no effect, the appeal court, on appeal against conviction will set the conviction aside. However, where there are sufficient or overwhelming evidence at the trial, the appellate court may order a retrial. (Echeazu versus the C.O.P (1974}2 S.C. 55.)


The Court

The court is divided into:

a)    The Bench – the bench is occupied by the court (Magistrate or Judge).

b)    Court Clerk/Administrative table – it is for the use of the court and it is occupied by the Court Staff

c)    The Bar – the Bar is usually the first two or three rolls and it is usually a space dedicated to the lawyers. A non-lawyer is never allowed to seat on these rolls.

d)    The Prosecutor’s bench – this is usually occupied by the lay-prosecutors and the Police.

e)    The Witness Box – It is usually a box with a seat located in either sides of the court. It is meant for those to give evidence or answer questions in the suit before the court.

f)     The Dock – the dock is usually for the accused person. It sometimes contains a seat for a frail accused person.

g)    The Court hall – the court hall contain long benches for the sitting of those members of the public who has cases before the court or merely come to witness the proceedings of the court.
































Exit to Court Chamber





Court Clerk/Administration


Witness Box


Bar Roll


Bar Roll


Bar Roll


Bench for the Public


Bench for the Public

Ingress and Egress to the Courtroom






















NOTE: It is only in the customary court and the Magistrate court that lay prosecutors like the Police or Environmental Health officers are allowed to prosecute. This is not allowed in the High Court and appellate courts; hence you will never find the prosecutors’ bench in the High court. The prosecution bench ends with Magistrate Court.


It is pertinent to mention that the sitting of a court must be in the open and any suit before the court in which judgment or decision is delivered becomes functus officio. However, there could be instances, in which the court will sit in the chambers or in camera when doing so become unavoidable.


Appearance and Addressing the Court.

Environmental Health Officer appearing for prosecution in court must be neatly dressed. The EHO must wear a clean dark coloured suit with tie or appear in professional uniform. He must endeavour to equip self with the rules of the court. The rules of court vary from State to State. The principle underlining all the rules of court is same.


There are specific modes of addressing a court. The president of the Customary courts is addressed “yours Honour”. The Magistrates is addressed “yours Worship”, while the Judges of the High Courts and higher courts are addressed “my Lord or my Lady, if she is a woman.

The court proceeding commences with the magistrate calling on the Court clerk to call the case/s for the day. It is the norm of the court for the magistrate to as, if there are applications and if none, the court will proceed to cases on the court list.

Usually, the prosecutor will open his case first, by announcing his appearance. It will be followed by the defence counsel.


It is important I mention at this juncture that the prosecutor with respect will alternate standing with the defence counsel. It is against the rules of the court for both the prosecutor and defence counsel to simultaneously stand up to address the court. It should also be noted that the Court is not a computer machine, record entry presently is done in longhand; hence the prosecutor or the defence counsel need to take caution by noting the rate at which the court is recording entry into the court records books, for conveniences purposes



Examination of witnesses

Having secured the attendance of a competent witness in court, the question is how does he give his evidence? Evidence in court must be obtained through and orderly process called examination.


Types of examination

  1. 1.            The examination of a witness by the party who calls him shall be called examination-in-chief.
  2. The examination of a witness by a party other than the party who calls him shall be called his cross-examination.
  3. 3.            Where a witness has been cross-examined and is then examined by the party who called him, such examination shall be called his re-examination.


Order of examination

The prosecutor/party beginning shall open his case and lead his witnesses in evidence-in-chief and the accused/defendant shall be entitled to cross-examine the witnesses. After the cross-examination, the witnesses may be re-examined. The examination and cross-examination must relate to relevant facts, but the cross-examination need not be confined to the facts to which the witness testified on his examination-in-chief. S. 189 E.A. The order in which witnesses are called is entirely at the discretion of the prosecutor/counsel- handling the matter.



Examination-in-chief is the method of putting questions to witnesses with a view to obtaining material evidence from them. It is conducted by the party calling the witness, usually through prosecutor/counsel: S. 188(1) E.A.  Usually a witness is first examined in- chief before he is cross-examined by any other part who may so desire (S. 189(1)). The purpose of examination-in-chief is to place witness’s story before the court so as to obtain testimony in support of the facts for which the party calling that witness is contending. Examination-in-chief is strictly on relevant facts only and it cannot be based on leading questions. Leading questions are those which suggest the intended answers.

Leading questions cannot be asked if objected to by the adverse party except the court permits it. S. 195 E.A.  Any question suggesting the answer which the person putting it wishes or expects to receive is called a leading question.

S. 196 E. A.

(1)    leading questions must not, if objected to by the adverse party, be asked in examination-in-chief, or in re-examination, except with the permission of the court

(2)    The court shall permit leading questions as to matters which are Introductory or undisputed, or which have, in its opinion, been already sufficiently proved.

NOTE: A witness who has been allowed to be treated as a “hostile’ witness can be asked leading questions.


Hostile Witness

A witness is considered “hostile” when in the opinion of the court, he shows that he is adverse to the party calling him and is unwilling to tell the truth. Assume that A calls B to prove some fact in question. If B contradicts A and fails to tell the truth of the fact in question, he can be regarded as “hostile”. If the Court is satisfied from the general conduct of the witness that he is hostile to the party calling him, then the Court in its discretion may allow the party calling the witness to put leading questions to him or cross-examine him.


Rules for examination-in-chief

When a witness is testifying in- chief the following rules must be observed:

a)            His testimony must be limited to facts; relevant facts and not law.

b)            He shall not give his own opinion, except if he is called to testify as an expert.

c)            He shall not testify to hearsay but direct evidence of what he saw, touched or felt. S.77 E.A.

d)            Ask one question at a time

e)            Avoid complex questions

f)             Ensure that fact pleaded are backed up by witness

g)            No leading questions, except on matters introductory or facts that are undisputed or if the opposite party does not object to it. S. 196 E.A.

h)           A leading question comes with a suggested answer prosecutor/counsel should use open questions in examination-in-chief, in preference to closed questions. This method guides the witness along a story line but allow him to tell his story. He is only prompted with open questions to remain on course as he tells his story. What was your reaction when you saw him? How did you get there?


Open questions


a)    They subtly direct the witness’ mind towards the desired answers, without necessarily “leading” him towards them.

b)    They have the potential to confer credibility on a witness’ testimony since he would be telling his story.



One of the disadvantages of an open question is that a witness could become unguarded and begin to ramble, if given undue liberty to speak in-between questions.


Closed questions

a)    A closed question does not give a witness the opportunity to tell a story. Rather, it limits his responses to ‘yes’ or ‘no’ or ‘I don’t know’ or some other specific response. Example,

    • “Did you slap him?”
    • Who gave you the money?

b)    The advantage with a closed question is that it helps in achieving precision.

c)    It is more capable of controlling a witness by keeping him on course than an open question might.


Cross examination

After the party calling a witness has finished examining him in-chief, any other party in the case may examine the witness (cross-examine). S.188 (2) In N.O.OKE’s book Guiding principles of cross-examination he said “cross-examination can be defined as the act of subjecting a witness to some questioning after his evidence-in-chief, by an adverse party in order to get the truth of the facts stated or other related facts from the witness so as to test the veracity or reliability of his evidence.

Taylor On Evidence Vol. 1 states thus “it is deemed indispensable to the proper administration of justice that every witness should be subjected to the ordeal of cross-examination by the party against whom he is called, so that it may appear, if necessary, what were his powers of perception, his opportunities for observation, his attentiveness in observing, the strength of his re-collection and his disposition to speak the truth. ”Grace Akinfe v. The State (1986); Adeleke v Aserifa (1986).

Cross-examination is not limited to facts that were elicited in examination in-chief. Leading questions can be asked in cross-examination.


Aim of Cross- Examination

S 200 E.A. When a witness is cross-examined, he may, in addition to the questions hereinbefore referred to, be asked any questions which tend

a)    to test his accuracy, veracity and credibility; or

b)    to discover who he is and what is his position in life; or

c)    To shake his credit, by injuring his character.

The aim of cross-examination was succinctly put by LORD HANWORTH, MR as follows: “Cross-examination is a powerful and valuable weapon for the purpose of testing the veracity of a witness and the completeness of his story.”


Golden Rules of Cross Examination

Per Justice Oputa

  1. Know what you need, STOP when you get it.
  2. Risk no case on an answer that may destroy it.
  3. Hold your temper while you lead the witness if necessary and convenient to lose his.
  4. Ask as if wanting one answer when you desire the opposite, if the witness is against you, and reverse the tactics if he is more tractable.


Cross-Examination of an Expert Witness

  • Avoid details relating to theory.
  • Where more than one set of facts lend support to an opinion, be adroit and skilfully elicit those facts favourable to your case only.
  • Do not give the expert the luxury of explanation for the basis of his conclusions, either.
  • He should be confronted with other opinion by another expert in the same field so as to contradict him
  • Confront him with relevant authorities such as published works so as to weaken the validity of inferences that can be drawn from proved facts.



This is a right which arises wherever there has been cross-examination. Re-examination (second stage of examination by the party calling a witness) is for the purpose of explanation of ambiguous terms us in the cross-examination and for shedding more light on any fact not too clearly stated in the cross-examination: S.188(3) E.A. Re-examination must be restricted to the explanation of matters referred to in cross-examination.

  • And where the court allows new matters to be introduced, the other party must be allowed to cross-examine on the new matters raised in re-examination: S. I89 E.A.
  • Similar to the position in examination in-chief, usually leading questions are not allowed during re-examination but the court has discretion to allow leading questions on disputed matters which in the opinion of the court have been sufficiently proved. S196 EA.



Under certain circumstances, permission may be granted to a witness under examination in- chief, or cross-examination or even re-examination to refer to some document so as to recall some matter. It should be noted, however, that he should not read aloud from the document, but should merely view it before giving his evidence. He can also be allowed to refresh his memory by referring to any writing made by him soon after the transaction in question: S. 216(1) E.A.


In Jimoh Amoo v R, the trial Judge allowed a witness to refresh his memory by the reading to him part of his deposition at the preliminary investigation, which deposition was taken some five weeks after the incidents to which the witness deposed. The Federal Supreme Court held that the trial judge erred in allowing the witness to make use of deposition to refresh his memory in these circumstances. Abike V Adedokun (1986)


Refreshing memory can be done at all stages of oral examination, whether in examination -in- chief, cross-examination or re-examination.


Procedure and foundation for tendering documents

  • The Court will ask the Court Clerk to call the case of the case list
  • The Court clerk will call the case number
  • The accused will enter the dock
  • The prosecutor will announce his appearance by saying: May it please this honorable court/your worship; C. O. Oremeji (Mrs.) appearing for prosecution, appearing with me is A.F. Morufu.
  • If the accused has Counsel, the accused/defence counsel will announce appearance
  • Court Clerk will read the charges to the accused to enter a plea
  • The accused will enter plea for each count charge either guilty or not guilty
  • If the accused enter a plea of guilty to the charges, the court will ask the prosecutor for the facts of the case.
  • If the accused enter a plea of not guilty
  • Court Clerk – All witnesses to be out of Court and Out of hearing.
  • The prosecutor will state that; Your worship, with the kind permission of the court, I/we would like to call the 1st Witness Mr. Ganiyu Dauda



Mr. Dauda an Environmental Health Officer as a Witness

Prosecutor:                Give your name to this court.

Witness:                     I am Mr. Ganiyu Dauda.

Prosecutor:                Where do you live?

Witness:                     I live at No l, Oke-fia Osogbo.

Prosecutor:                Where do you work and as what?

Witness:                     I am an Employee of Osun State Local Government Service Commission and I work as an Environmental Health Officer

Prosecutor:                Do you know the accused in this case?

Witness:                     Yes your worship.

Prosecutor:                Now, tell this court how you know the accused person.

Witness:                     On 8th February 2010, at about 1000hrs, I was on Ikirun Road in accompanied by a health assistant on routine house to house inspection. I inspected the house of the accused person at No. 4, Ikirun Road, Osogbo. I discovered the absence of sanitary latrine and bathroom accommodations and I subsequently issued him an abatement notice giving him 30days within which is to comply with the abatement notice.

Prosecutor:                Wait a minute; did I hear you say you issued him an abatement notice giving him 30days within which is to comply with the abatement notice.

Witness:                     Yes your worship.

Prosecutor:                If you see the duplicate copy of the abatement notice will you recognize it?

Witness:                     Yes your worship

Clerk of Court:          Is this the duplicate copy of the abatement notice you issued?

Witness:                     Yes your worship, this is the duplicate copy of the abatement notice

Prosecutor:                Your worship, I am seeking leave of this honourable court to tender the duplicate copy of the abatement notice issued.

Magistrate:                 Court Clerk, show the duplicate copy of the abatement notice to the accused person or opposing counsel (where there is Counsel)

Opposing Counsel: No objection your worship

Magistrate:                 Duplicate copy of the abatement notice admitted and marked as exhibit “A”

Prosecutor:                Thank you your worship. Health Officer (Witness) continue.

Witness:                     After the expiration of 30days given, I went to the house to see, if Mr. Amodu has provided the sanitary latrine and bathroom accommodations

Prosecutor:                Did he do it?

Opposing Counsel: Objection your worship, the prosecutor is leading the witness.

Magistrate:                 Objection overruled. Prosecutor you may precede.

Prosecutor:                Thank you your worship. Health Officer you said you went to the house to confirm compliance with the abatement notice, how can you prove this fact?

Witness:                     I was accompanied by two health assistants and issued him a verification note.

Prosecutor:                If you see the duplicate copy of your verification note, will you recognize it?

Witness:                     Yes your worship, this is the duplicate copy of your verification note.

Prosecutor:                Your worship, I am seeking leave of this honourable court to tender the duplicate copy of the verification note issued.

Magistrate:                 Duplicate copy of the verification note admitted as exhibit “B”

(Note: Opposing Counsel raises no objection and verification note is admitted as Exhibit ‘B’)

Prosecutor:                Your worship, I am done with the witness and shall be seeking leave of this honourable court to let the 2 witness in.




What is the basis of environmental policy in Nigeria and which agencies/bodies administer and enforce environmental law?

The basis of environmental policy in Nigeria is contained in the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Pursuant to section 20 of the Constitution, the State is empowered to protect and improve the environment and safeguard the water, air and land, forest and wildlife of Nigeria. In addition to this, section 2 of the Environmental Impact Assessment Act of 1992 (EIA Act) provides that the public or private sector of the economy shall not undertake or embark on or authorise projects or activities without prior consideration of the effect on the environment.

The Federal Government of Nigeria has promulgated various laws and Regulations to safeguard the Nigerian environment. These include:

  • Federal Environmental Protection Agency Act of 1988 (FEPA Act). The following Regulations were made pursuant to the FEPA Act:
    • National Environmental Protection (Effluent Limitation) Regulations:
      • National Environmental Protection (Pollution Abatement in Industries and Facilities Generating Wastes) Regulations; and
      • National Environmental Protection (Management of Solid and Hazardous Wastes) Regulations.
  • Environmental Impact Assessment Act of 1992 (EIA Act).
  • Harmful Wastes (Special Criminal Provisions etc.) Act of 1988 (Harmful Wastes Act).

The Federal Ministry of Environment (FME) administers and enforces environmental laws in Nigeria. It took over this function in 1999 from the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), which was created under the FEPA Act. FEPA was absorbed and its functions taken over by the FME in 1999.

The Federal Ministry of Environment has published several guidelines for the administration of the FEPA and EIA Acts and procedures for evaluating environmental impact assessment reports (EIA Reports).

Other regulatory agencies with oversight over specific industries have also issued guidelines to regulate the impact of such industries on the environment such as the Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria (EGASPIN) 2002, published by the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR).

However, pursuant to the FEPA Act, each State and local government in the country may set up its own environmental protection body for the protection and improvement of the environment within the State. Each State is also empowered to make laws to protect the environment within its jurisdiction. All the States have environmental agencies and State laws; e.g. Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory has issued the Abuja Environmental Protection Board (Solid Waste Control/Environmental Monitoring) Regulations 2005 (“the Abuja Environmental Protection Board Regulations”) which principally governs solid waste control in Abuja. In Lagos State, the Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency Law was enacted to establish the Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA). LASEPA’s functions include monitoring and controlling the disposal of waste in Lagos State and advising the State Government on all environmental management policies. Lagos State has also enacted the Environmental Pollution Control Law, to provide for the control of pollution and protection of the environment from abuse due to poor waste management. Akwa Ibom State has enacted the Environmental Protection and Waste Management Agency Law, which established the Environmental Protection and Waste Management Agency. This Agency is charged with responsibilities which include identifying and proffering solutions to environmental protection problems in Akwa Ibom, and monitoring and enforcing environmental protection standards and regulations.


What approach do such agencies/bodies take to the enforcement of environmental law?

The EIA Act was promulgated principally to enable the prior consideration of environmental impact assessment of public or private projects. Any person planning a project/activity which may have an impact on the environment is statutorily required to prepare an EIA Report, and the Report must set out the potential impact of the activity on the environment and plans for preventing/mitigating the same, as well as clean up plans. All such Reports must be approved by the FME. Attached to the EIA Act is a schedule of activities and industries for which environmental impact assessments are mandatory. These include Agriculture, Airport, Drainage and Irrigation, Land Reclamation, Fisheries, Forestry, Housing, Industry, Infrastructure, Ports, Mining, Petroleum, Power Generation and Transmission, Quarries, Railways, Transportation, Resort and Recreational Development, Waste Treatment and Disposal, and Water Supply.

Any person who fails to comply with the provisions of the EIA Act commits an offence and is liable on conviction, in the case of an individual, to a fine or to a term of imprisonment for up to five years; and fines are also imposed on guilty firms or corporations.

Furthermore, the FEPA Act empowers the FME to require the production for examination of any licence or permit granted to any person, to enter and search any land or building, and to arrest any person whom they have reason to believe has violated any environmental regulation.

The approach of regulatory agencies is the prevention of environmental damages, the regulation of potentially harmful activities and the punishment of willful harmful damage whenever this occurs. The environmental agencies also adopt the approach of engaging individuals and communities at risk of potential environmental damage in dialogue. The EIA approval process adopted by the FME involves a system of public hearings during the EIA evaluation process and interested members of the public are invited to such hearings.

The respective State environmental agencies in Nigeria, e.g. the Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA), also take the same approach.


To what extent are public authorities required to provide environment-related information to interested persons (including members of the public)?

Public authorities are statutorily required to inform the public of environment-related issues. The FEPA Act requires FEPA to collect and make available through publications and other appropriate means and in cooperation with public or private organisations, information pertaining to pollution and environmental protection regulations.

The EIA Act provides for the maintenance of a Public Registry for the purpose of facilitating public access to records relating to environmental assessments. The Lagos State Environmental Pollution Control Law requires the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning to educate the general public on the types of disposal methods acceptable by the State Government for domestic and Industrial wastes. In addition under the LASEPA law, LASEPA is required to carry out public enlightenment exercises and educate the public on methods of environmental sanitation and management.

The FME also issues guidelines from time to time for environmental impact assessments for different industries and it also has publications which inform the public of the prohibition of environmental pollution. Furthermore, members of the public and persons requiring clarifications on environmental issues can visit the offices of the FME or the relevant State environmental agency for environment-related information.

As stated in question 1.2 above public hearings to which interested members of the public are invited is a key part of the approval process for EIA reports by the relevant agencies.


When is an environmental permit required, and may environmental permits be transferred from one person to another?

The different pieces of legislation on the protection of the environment contain provisions for the issuance of environmental permits. Such permits are required for all potentially environmentally sensitive activities and are typically granted by the FME and the relevant State agencies. Specific legislation on permits include the Radioactive Waste Management Regulations 2006 which provides that any person generating or managing radioactive waste must apply for and obtain a permit from the Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority; the FEPA Act and the regulations made thereunder.

The National Environment Protection (Pollution Abatement in Industries and Facilities Generating Wastes) Regulations made pursuant to the FEPA Act provide that a permit will be required:

  • for storage, treatment and transportation of harmful toxic waste within Nigeria;
  • where effluents with constituents beyond permissible limits will be discharged into public drains, rivers, lakes, sea, or as an underground injection;
  • when oil in any form shall be discharged into public drains, rivers, lakes, sea, or as an underground injection; and
  • for an industry or a facility with a new point source of pollution or a new process line with a new point source. Such an industry or facility shall apply to the agency for a discharge permit.

Some permits are industry specific; e.g. in the oil and gas industry, the Directorate of Petroleum Resources (DPR) also regulates environment issues, and operators in the industry are required to obtain the necessary permits.

The Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria (EGASPIN) 2002, published by the DPR provides that the Director of Petroleum Resources shall issue permits for all aspects of oil-related effluent discharges from point sources (gaseous, liquid and solid), and oil-related project development.

The EGASPIN also provides that environmental permits shall be issued for existing and new sources of effluent emission. All projects in the oil and gas industry must be issued with the requisite environmental permits, and failure to procure the same may lead to penalties.

Relevant state permits are also required i.e. pursuant to the Abuja Environmental Protection Board Act (Solid Waste Control /environmental Monitoring Regulations 2005), all sponsors of major development projects in Abuja must submit to the Abuja Environmental Protection Board (“the Board”) details of the project i.e. its nature and scope, the site and area of the project, the activities to be carried out and any other relevant information. Upon submission, the sponsor is issued an Impact Clearance Permit by the Board. In Lagos State, the LASEPA law requires any person manufacturing or storing chemicals, lubricants, petroleum products, cement and other material used in building, radioactive materials, or gases in residential or commercial areas to obtain a permit.

The permits are typically not transferable as they are project specific. Where such permits are however transferable the consent of the regulator will be required prior to any such transfer.


What rights are there to appeal against the decision of an environmental regulator not to grant an environmental permit or in respect of the conditions contained in an environmental permit?

Any entity or individual affected by a decision of an environmental regulator has a right of appeal under the relevant laws and regulations. The EGASPIN which is applicable in the oil and gas industry provides that an aggrieved party shall be free to seek remedy at courts/tribunals. The FEPA Act allows an aggrieved person to bring an action in the Federal High Court against the FME for any act done in pursuance or execution of any environmental law or of any public duties.


Is it necessary to conduct environmental audits or environmental impact assessments for particularly polluting industries or other installations/projects?

Nigerian law makes it mandatory for EIAs and environmental audits to be carried out by polluting industries. The practice is that an EIA report must be prepared in respect of all major projects and approved by the FME and the environmental agency of the State in Nigeria in which the project is located. In addition, for oil and gas projects, the requisite environmental permit must be granted by the DPR.

Some activities have been classified as mandatory study activities under the EIA Act. They include Agriculture, Airport, Drainage and Irrigation, Land Reclamation, Fisheries, Forestry, Housing, Industry, Infrastructure, Ports, Mining, Petroleum, Power Generation and Transmission, Quarries, Railways, Transportation, Resort and Recreational Development, Waste Treatment and Disposal, and Water Supply. The effect of this is that no Federal, State or Local Government or any of their agencies shall exercise any power or perform any duty or functions that would permit the project to be carried out in whole or in part until the FME has approved the EIA for such a project.

Other legislation which requires EIAs is the Abuja Environmental Protection Board Act, which empowers the Board to request an EIA for a development project and the sponsor must submit reports to the Board from time to time. The Akwa Ibom State Environmental Protection and Waste Management Agency Act (EPWMA) empower the Agency to conduct pre and post EIAs of projects and make recommendations for corrective measures.

The EGASPIN sets out a list of activities in the oil and gas sector that require environmental assessment. They include all seismic operations; oil and gas field developments onshore, nearshore, offshore and deepshore; hydrocarbon processing facilities; construction of waste treatment; and/or disposal facilities.

After project completion, regular environmental audits must also be carried out. The FME requires an environmental audit to be carried out every 2-3 years. The DPR also carries out regular environmental audits of oil and gas installations, stations, depots, etc.


What enforcement powers do environmental regulators have in connection with the violation of permits?

Environmental regulators have wide ranging powers in the event of violation of environmental permits and environmental laws in general. The FEPA Act gives authorised officers of the FME powers to:

  • require to be produced, then examine and take copies of any licence or permit, certificate or document required under the Act or regulations made thereunder;
  • enter and search any land, building, vehicle, tent, vessel, floating craft or any inland water;
  • cause to be arrested any person whom they have reason to believe has committed an offence against the Act or any regulations made thereunder; and
  • seize any item or substance which they have reason to believe has been used in the commission of such offence or in respect of which the offence has been committed.

The LASEPA Law also contains similar provisions authorising officers to search and seize offending items and to arrest offenders. Some examples of offences under the LASEPA Law include the discharge of raw untreated human waste into any public drain, gorge, or any land in the State, and the discharge of any form of oil, grease, spent oil including trade waste brought about in the course of manufacturing into any public drain, water-course, water gorge and road verge.

Similar provisions are contained in the Akwa Ibom State EPWMA Act. The EPWMA Act empowers inspectors to inspect premises and take samples of waste generated on premises. The EPWMA Act also provides that any person who commits an offence under the Act shall be arraigned before the Environmental Sanitation Court. The Environmental Sanitation Court was established pursuant to the EPWMA Act to try offending individuals or organisations. Offences under the EPWMA Act include burying or dumping expired drugs or chemicals without a permit, using gamalin 20 or any herbicide, insecticide or other chemicals to kill fishes or any other aquatic life in rivers, lakes and streams.

Section 11 of the Harmful Wastes Act empowers the Minister charged with responsibility for works and housing to seal up an area or site used or being used for the purpose of depositing or dumping harmful waste.

Pursuant to section 37 of the Petroleum (Drilling and Production) Regulations 1969 (Drilling Regulations) the holder of an Oil Mining Lease (OML) or an Oil Prospecting License (OPL) is required to prevent the escape of petroleum into any water, well, spring, stream river, lake reservoir, estuary or harbour. The Drilling Regulations further authorises inspectors to examine the premises of the holder of the OML or OPL to ensure that such persons comply with the Drilling Regulations. Any person who fails to comply with the provisions of the Drilling Regulations may be prosecuted in court.

The DPR also has powers to seal up premises, seize offending substances, impose fines and require the clean up of environmental damage. Violators risk fines and in certain cases, a shutdown of the polluting/offending facility until there is compliance.


How is waste defined and do certain categories of waste involve additional duties or controls?

The relevant legislation defines “waste” and refers to categories of waste. The LASEPA Law defines waste to include “industrial, solid, liquid, gaseous gases containing substances such as sulphur dioxide, oxides or nitrogen, hydrogen-sulphide, carbon-monoxide, ammonia, chlorine, smoke and metallic dusts and particles, oil organic vapours, corrosive, reagent, flammable liquid solid, poison, poly-chloringhed hiphenlys, dynocyanide, methyl-melamine, ethylacetate, toxic substance, cement waste etc.”. Under the Harmful Waste Act, “harmful waste” is defined “to mean any injurious, poisonous, toxic or waste-emitting radioactive substance if the waste is in such quantity, whether with any other consignment of the same or of different substance, as to subject any person to the risk of death, fatal injury or incurable impairment of physical and mental health; and the fact that the harmful waste is placed in a container shall not by itself be taken to exclude any risk which might be expected to arise from the harmful waste”.

Certain categories of waste involve additional duties and controls. Poisonous, toxic or radioactive waste is treated differently from household or industrial waste or effluents that are non-toxic in nature. Under the Nigerian Radioactive Waste Management Regulations 2006 radioactive waste which does not qualify for discharge or release to the environment shall be disposed of in a near surface repository to be established by the government and licensed by the Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority. In addition to this, radioactive waste must be categorised and kept in suitablecontainers with visible labels indicating the nature of waste generated, the date of waste generation, the waste category and other relevant information. The more dangerous or hazardous the waste is, the higher the level of control needed for its storage, disposal and treatment.


To what extent is a producer of waste allowed to store and/or dispose of it on the site where it was produced?

The laws allow the storage or disposal of waste on site subject to the issuance of relevant permits. Regulation 10 of the National Environment Protection (Pollution Abatement in Industries and Facilities Generating Wastes) Regulations made pursuant to the FEPA Act provides that no person shall engage in the storage, treatment or transportation of harmful toxic waste without a permit issued by FEPA. Where harmful toxic waste is produced on-site, it may only be stored or disposed on-site where a permit has been issued to the producer of such waste.

Where it is environmentally safe to so do, solid waste may be stored or disposed of on-site, subject to the issuance of the requisite permit – Regulation 16 of the National Environment Protection (Pollution Abatement in Industries and Facilities Generating Wastes) Regulations.


Do producers of waste retain any residual liability in respect of the waste where they have transferred it to another person for disposal/treatment off-site (e.g. if the transferee/ultimate disposer goes bankrupt/disappears)?

Producers of waste may retain residual liability, particularly where a transferee or person engaged to dispose of the same absconds. If the regulator is able to trace the waste back to the producer, it would be liable for the clean up.

The FEPA Act provides that the collection, treatment, transportation and final disposal of waste shall be the responsibility of the industry or facility generating the waste.

Regulation 11 of the National Environment Protection (Pollution Abatement in Industries and Facilities Generating Wastes) Regulations provides that the collection, treatment, transportation and final disposal of waste shall be the responsibility of the industry or facility generating the waste. The ultimate responsibility lies with the producer, as under Nigerian law, the “polluter pays” principle applies.


To what extent do waste producers have obligations regarding the take-back and recovery of their waste?

The law places the responsibility for the take-back or recovery of waste on the waste producer.

The Nigerian Radioactive Waste Management Regulations 2006 provides that the primary responsibility for the safe management of radioactive waste lies with the waste generator and the waste generator shall take all necessary actions to ensure the safety of radioactive waste unless the responsibility has been transferred to another person or organisation approved by the Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority. The Regulations further provide that the waste generator shall be responsible for collection, characterisation and temporary storage of radioactive waste arising from his activities and discharge of exempt waste.

EGASPIN provides that as much as possible, all the reusable components of hazardous wastes should be recovered by using the best practicable technology currently available. The National Environmental Protection (Management of Solid and Hazardous Wastes) Regulations made pursuant to the FEPA Act provide that waste should be recovered at the point of generation, where practicable.




What types of liabilities can arise where there is a breach of environmental laws and/or permits, and what defences are typically available?

The FEPA Act provides that a person who breaches the provisions of the Act commits an offence and shall on conviction be liable to a fine, or imprisonment, or both. The FEPA Act also provides that where there has been a discharge of any hazardous substance in violation of environmental laws/permits, the person responsible for the discharge will bear the liability of the costs of removal and clean up.

The Harmful Wastes Act provides that any person found guilty of purchasing, selling, importing, transporting, depositing or storing harmful waste shall on conviction be sentenced to imprisonment for life.

A typical defence is that the act (e.g. discharge of hazardous substance into the air, or upon the land and the waters of Nigeria or at the shorelines) was done within the permissible limit or was authorised under any law in force in Nigeria.

Another defence under the law is that the breach of the environmental law or any permit given thereunder was caused solely by a natural disaster or an act of war or sabotage and as such, the owner or occupier of the facility would seek to avoid liability on this ground.

Ignorance of a breach of environmental law is typically not a defence to an environmental offence. Section 25(9) of the Environmental Pollution Control Law of Lagos State provides that it shall not be a defence for the owner of any land on which waste is buried or dumped to state that the offence was committed without his knowledge.


Can an operator be liable for environmental damage notwithstanding that the polluting activity is operated within permit limits?

An operator would typically not be liable for a polluting activity which is within the limits of any environmental permit granted to it, provided that such activity is strictly in compliance with the terms and conditions of the relevant permit.

The EPWMA Act provides that no person is allowed to discharge into any public drain, water course, or roads verge any form of oil, grease, spent oil brought about in the course of manufacturing or other type of business without the written permission of the Agency. The operator will be liable for any discharge outside the limit of the permit which is renewable annually.


Can directors and officers of corporations attract personal liabilities for environmental wrongdoing, and to what extent may they get insurance or rely on other indemnity protection in respect of such liabilities?

Directors and officers may in certain circumstances attract personal liability for environmental wrongdoing. Under the FEPA Act, directors and officers of a company who were in charge of or responsible to the company for the conduct of the business of the company at the time the environmental wrongdoing was committed shall be deemed to be guilty of an offence and shall be liable to be prosecuted and punished, usually by payment of a fine or imprisonment.

The EPWMA Act specifically provides that where an offence is committed with the consent or connivance of or attributed to any neglect or omission on the part of the director, manager, secretary or other similar officer of the company such person shall be liable on conviction to a maximum of five years imprisonment without an option of a fine.

The only defence open to such directors and officers is that the offence was committed without their knowledge or that they exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence.

Directors and officers are typically able to obtain the necessary indemnifications from the company with regard to liabilities arising in the course of business, including environmental pollution. It is also possible for companies to take out insurances protecting their officers, employees and directors from potential personal liability arising in the course of operations.

Under the provisions of the Companies and Allied Matters Act of 1990 (CAMA), an officer may be indemnified in respect of anything done or omitted to be done in the course of the company’s operations, if there is a subsisting provision (whether contained in the articles of the company or in any contract with the company) to this effect.


What are the different implications from an environmental liability perspective of a share sale on the one hand and an asset purchase on the other?

There are different implications from an environmental liability perspective of a share sale on the one hand and an asset purchase on the other. A shareholder of a company would typically not be personally liable for environmental damage or other liabilities of a company, under the principle of limited liability. A shareholder is liable to the extent of his shareholding in the company, unless he is proved to have been aware of the environmental breach and is involved in the offending acts. Thus, a shareholder who has purchased shares in a company that may have environmental liabilities arising from its operations would not be personally liable for any environmental damage arising from the company’s operations. Nigerian law places liability on the directors and officers of a company for environmental damage created by the company. The definition of officers of a company under CAMA does not include shareholders of the company.

An asset purchase, on the other hand, makes the purchaser an owner who may be held liable for any environmental liability. Under Nigerian law, environmental liability is based on the owner/occupier principle. Thus, the owner/occupier of premises where a polluting activity takes place is liable for the damage and will have the responsibility of cleaning up such pollution as well as paying any fines imposed. Such owner/occupier can only avoid liability if he is able to prove that the polluting activity took place prior to the asset purchase, in which case the actual producer of the waste will be liable, if he can be located.


What is the approach to liability for contamination (including historic contamination) of soil or groundwater?

The approach to contamination of soil or groundwater is that the polluter pays the costs of clean up and may also be liable to fines or imprisonment. The person responsible for the contamination will be required to restore the soil and groundwater to appropriate safety levels.

The FEPA Act provides that any person who discharges hazardous substances into the air, upon the land or waters of Nigeria shall upon conviction be subject to a fine and/or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years. If this offence is committed by a company, the company shall on conviction be liable to a fine. The FEPA Act also provides that unless the owner or operator of any vessel or onshore or offshore facility from which the hazardous substance is discharged can show that the discharge was caused by a natural disaster or an act of war or sabotage, the owner or occupier shall be subject to the cost of removal and restoration or compensation as the case may be.

The Akwa Ibom EPWMA Act provides that any person who allows toxic waste to be dumped in any land or water commits an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a maximum term of five years imprisonment. EGASPIN provides as follows:

The Licensee/Lessee who is responsible for the generation of the waste shall be liable for any contamination associated with such waste.

Such Licensee/Lessee shall bear all the costs associated with the investigation, remediation and monitoring, even when the same are conducted at the discretion of the Director, Petroleum Resources.

Adequate compensation shall be paid appropriately by such Licensee/Lessee to the relevant community and landowners, in consultation with the local government(s) and the Director, Petroleum Resources

Under the Harmful Waste Act, where any damage (e.g. contamination of land or groundwater) is due to harmful waste, any person who deposited, dumped or imported the harmful waste or caused the harmful waste to be so deposited, dumped or imported shall be liable for the damage.


How is liability allocated where more than one person is responsible for the contamination?

Under the Harmful Waste Act, each of the persons responsible shall be deemed to have committed a crime. The liability of each such offender is several.


If a programme of environmental remediation is ‘agreed’ with an environmental regulator can the regulator come back and require additional works or can a third party challenge the agreement?

Regulators may require additional steps to be taken with regard to an agreed programme of environmental remediation i.e. pursuant to an environmental audit and it is subsequently determined that additional action is required.

Third parties may also challenge an agreed programme of environmental remediation. Such interested third parties may file claims in the Court challenging any arrangements they perceive to be inadequate to restore the contaminated land.


Does a person have a private right of action to seek contribution from a previous owner or occupier of contaminated land when that owner caused, in whole or in part, contamination; and to what extent is it possible for a polluter to transfer the risk of contaminated land liability to a purchaser?

A polluter can contractually transfer pollution liability to a purchaser. If the contract between the polluter and the purchaser says that all liability is transferred upon completion and no exceptions are made for contamination, a purchaser will be liable and will have no right of recourse to the previous owner. Nigerian law recognises the principle of ‘buyer beware’ and potential purchasers are deemed to have conducted proper due diligence prior to concluding asset purchase.

There is no general legal duty to disclose prior environmental pollution on any land or facility to a purchaser and a buyer who did not enquire about possible pollution during a due diligence exercise prior to purchase will be deemed to have liability for pollution whenever discovered unless indemnity for pollution was given by the previous owner. Lack of knowledge is no excuse.

However, a person may have a private right of action to seek contribution from a previous owner or occupier of contaminated land when that owner caused, in whole or in part, the contamination, and the agreement between the parties did not fully transfer such obligations.


Does the government have authority to obtain from polluter monetary damages for aesthetic harms to public assets, e.g., rivers?

Under the law, the government has the authority to obtain monetary damages from a polluter for aesthetic harm to public assets. The FEPA Act requires a polluter to pay for the costs of removal of any such pollution, including any costs which may be incurred by any government body or agency in the restoration or replacement of damaged or destroyed natural resources.

The EPWMA Act requires a polluter to pay compensation to affected persons and the State for environmental damage caused by the offender.


What powers do environmental regulators have to require production of documents, take samples, conduct site inspections, interview employees, etc.?

Nigerian environmental regulators have statutory powers to require the production of documents, take samples, conduct site inspection etc. in the course of carrying out their functions of preventing or investigating environmental damage.

The FEPA Act empowers the FME to require the production for examination of any licence or permit granted to any person, to enter and search any land or building to take samples, conduct site inspections, interview employees and to arrest any offender. Under the Akwa Ibom EPWMA Act, Environmental Protection and Waste Management Inspectors are empowered to inspect environmental standards on premises during reasonable hours between 6:00 am and 6:00 pm. similar provisions are contained in the LASEPA law.


If pollution is found on a site, or discovered to be migrating off-site, must it be disclosed to an environmental regulator or potentially affected third parties?

The law generally obligates anyone who discovers pollution on any site to report the same to the authorities.

Where pollution is found on a site or is discovered to be migrating off-site, there is a legal obligation to disclose this to an environmental regulator and to potentially affected third parties. Section 22(2) (a) of the FEPA Act provides that where there has been a discharge into the environment, the responsible party shall immediately give notice of the discharge to the FME and to any other relevant agencies.

The rule in Ryland’s v. Fletcher imposes liability for any damage that may be caused by pollution that has migrated to the site of a third party. The rule in Ryland’s v. Fletcher requires that the person who for his own purposes brings on his lands and collects and keeps there anything likely to cause damage if it escapes, must keep it at his peril, and if he does not do so, is prima facie answerable for all the damage which is the natural consequence of its escape to the third party’s property.


When and under what circumstances does a person have an affirmative obligation to investigate land for contamination?

Nigerian law does not impose a general obligation to investigate land for contamination or any person saves for the statutory obligations of the relevant regulators. Such an obligation however arises for a project which meets the requirements of environmental laws and requires an EIA. For such a project to be undertaken, the EIA report must cover results of land/soil investigations on the suitability of the site for the proposed project and examine the determined potential impact of the project.

Upon discovery of contamination and reporting of the same, the EIA Report would typically provide an action plan for mitigating the effects of the potential contamination.


To what extent is it necessary to disclose environmental problems, e.g. by a seller to a prospective purchaser in the context of merger and/or takeover transactions?

There is no legal requirement on a seller to disclose environmental problems to a prospective purchaser. Under Nigerian law, the common law principle of ‘buyer beware’ is applicable, and the duty is on a purchaser to take all reasonable steps to protect itself by carrying out adequate due diligence prior to an asset purchase. However, a purchaser has a right to enquire about and obtain details of assets to be purchased. If such an enquiry is made, the seller has an obligation to provide full disclosure to the best of its knowledge. Failure to do so may lead to an action for fraudulent misrepresentation if his disclosures are subsequently found to be incorrect. A potential purchaser may engage experts to carry out environmental investigations and to request necessary indemnifications in the event that he suspects prior environmental pollution.

The same principle applies in mergers or takeover transactions. The potential purchaser must undertake necessary due diligence investigations in order to uncover any prior environmental pollution and make necessary enquiries on possible environmental damage from past activities.


Is it possible to use an environmental indemnity to limit exposure for actual or potential environment-related liabilities, and does making a payment to another person under an indemnity in respect of a matter (e.g. remediation) discharge the indemnifier’s potential liability for that matter?

It is possible to use an environmental indemnity to limit exposure for actual or potential environmentally-related liabilities. Parties may agree in their contractual arrangements on appropriate indemnifications for losses arising from prior pollution. This is very common in lending transactions where lenders seek to avoid liability for existing conditions on a project site which is being financed by them.

Making a payment to another person under an indemnity to cover losses incurred as a result of environmental damage would typically discharge the indemnifier’s liability to the person indemnified unless further or additional pollution is uncovered. The indemnifier’s potential liability is not discharged completely if further damage is discovered.


Is it possible to shelter environmental liabilities off balance sheet, and can a company be dissolved in order to escape environmental liabilities?

Companies typically do not reflect environmental liabilities on their balance sheets, as they are required to take out necessary insurance for all potential business risks. However where the potential environmental liability is immense, the details of the liability may be reflected on the accountant’s notes which form part of the company’s financial statement.

In Nigeria, a company may voluntarily be dissolved or wound up under the provisions of CAMA. CAMA however provides that the property of a company shall on its winding up be applied in satisfaction of its liabilities. Therefore, dissolution of a company cannot be a means of escaping environmental liabilities, as the property of such a company will be used to pay its liabilities. However an insolvent company may in certain circumstances be able to escape liability for environmental damage where its assets upon liquidation are insufficient to cover the cost of remediation. Shareholders, directors and officers may be personally liable for such damage if they were aware of the activities which caused the damage.


Can a person who holds shares in a company be held liable for breaches of environmental law and/or pollution caused by the company, and can a parent company be sued in its national court for pollution caused by a foreign subsidiary/affiliate?

The principle of limited liability protects a shareholder from being held liable for the acts of the company. A shareholder will only be held liable for breaches of environmental law and/or pollution caused by the company to the extent that the shareholder is in charge of or was for the conduct of the company’s business.

Under Nigerian Law, there is no presumption that a subsidiary (even a wholly-owned subsidiary) acts as the agent of its parent company. A subsidiary is a separate legal entity from its parent company. Its acts are not acts of the parent company and the parent company is not responsible for its acts or defaults, in the absence of specific provisions to that effect in a contract between them. Therefore, a parent company cannot be sued for pollution caused by a foreign subsidiary merely because it is a shareholder in the subsidiary. Such a parent must have been involved in management and/or been aware of the pollution activities.


Are there any laws to protect “whistle-blowers” who report environmental violations/matters?

Nigerian law contains provisions to protect whistle-blowers who report or testify in environmental violation matters. Section 37 of the EIA Act provides that where specific, direct and substantial harm would be caused to a witness by the disclosure of evidence at a Review Panel, the hearing by the Review Panel shall not be in public; and where the Review Panel is satisfied that the disclosure of evidence, documents or other things would cause specific, direct and substantial harm to a witness, the evidence, documents or other things shall be privileged and shall not, without the authorisation of the witness, knowingly be or be permitted to be communicated, disclosed or made available by any person who has obtained the evidence, documents or other things.


Are group or “class” actions available for pursuing environmental claims, and are penal or exemplary damages available?

I confirm that Nigerian law recognises class action by a group or a community of people for pursuing environmental claims. Such actions are fairly common in the oil and gas industry where communities claim damages and clean up for pollution of their lands, waters and general environment. In a recent case which involved Shell Petroleum Development Company the inhabitants of the community close to a major oil spillage filed a group action against Shell seeking damages of up to N60,000,000.00. The community won in the lower courts and the appellate court upheld the decision but reduced the damages awarded.

Nigerian courts have awarded special and general damages in actions for damages arising from environmental pollution. Such damages have been for the loss of fishing rights, pollution of drinking water, damage and hazards from pollution of the environment, general inconvenience, and miscellaneous losses. The courts typically do not award exemplary damages in the claims brought before them. Exemplary damages may be awarded only in the following three circumstances:

  • where the plaintiff has suffered oppressive, arbitrary or unconstitutional action by a servant of the government;
  • where the defendant’s conduct has been calculated by him to make a profit for himself which may well exceed the compensation payable to the plaintiff; and
  • where statute so provides.


Adeyemi Rotimi Emmanuel Tokunboh, B.L., LL.B., B.Sc., M.Env. Mgmt., MRSH

Deputy Director: Environmental Health

Local Government Service Commission, Akure

Ondo State, Nigeria.

E-mail: (and or)

Tel: Mob. (+234) 08033541714



[1]. Adefemi Olokesusi, The Environmentalist, Volume 7, Number 1,

55-60 (1987)


[3] FAO/WHO Global Forum of Food Safety Regulators: Marrakesh, Morocco, 28 – 30 January 2002.

[6] http://www. motherlandnigeria. 1998 – 2007


[7] Aluko & Oyebode, Nigeria: Environment Law in Nigeria:20 November 2007 (Article by Oghogho Makinde and Temitayo Adeyoke).

Environmental Sanitation: Making Every day counts

Ojewale A. S., a lecture presented at the 42nd national conference/scientific workshop of Environmental health Officers Association of Nigeria, 19-22nd October, 2009, Damaturu.


The topic-“Environmental Sanitation: Making Everyday Counts readily reminded one of some religious injunctions and tenets-to “pray 5 times daily or helping us to counts our days” or even saying that we should keep the “Sabbath day holy”. All these are spiritual and moral instructions that have bearing on the environment. Because environmentally relevant psychology and sociology must deal with human actions bearing on environmental quality, it seems relevant to develop a systematic description of those circumstances that are termed environmental problems and the behaviours that may influence them.

          Environmental concerns can be divided into three major areas on which “everyday must count” (a) Environmental aesthetics and the quality of life (b) Physical health and the survival of the human species on this planet and (c) Concern for the maintenance and efficient use of available resources-renewable and non-renewable including social infrastructures.


Conceptually, I subscribe to the view that most environmentally relevant behaviour can be thought of in terms of the three components of an operant paradigm described by B.E. Skinner (1953). This mode is symbolized by term SD – R – SS.

          In the model a discriminative stimulus (symbolized by the letter SD) or environmental context, set the occasion for a response (R). Think of an SD as signal that a particular behaviour is called for in a particular context.

          The response itself often acts upon the environment that is our immediate and distant surroundings usually change as a function of what we do i.e. every action counts as everyday counts.

 This change(s) (symbolized by SR) can be either positive (SR+) or. (SR-). We call the change reinforcing or positive (SR+) when it is shown that the future likelihood of that behaviour increases but if the response decreases in the future. We say the change has been negative, or ‘punishing’.

          This paradigm is a fruitful way to view behaviour in relation to numerous environmental sanitation problems presently confronting use. For example, it has long been known that the consequences that are most likely to influence behaviour arc, other things being equal, those that follow the behaviour closely in time. Many if not all environmental sanitation problems are seemingly due to this fact about behaviour. There appear to be conflicts between short term positive consequences and long term negative ones i.e. “social traps”.

          My intention here is to attract attention to individual and societal behaviour that impinge negatively on the environment-bad environmental sanitation habits, thus we may treat the causes rather than the effects or treating the two together.

          By the way, behaviour within the context of this paper means and include all those actions we do or fail to do that have impacts on the sanitation of our immediate and distant environment.


 Sanitation is a French coinage ‘sanitas’ – meaning health. Thus, environmental sanitation can be taken to mean a process of making the environmental sanitary healthy hygienic and aesthetic.

Also, the national sanitation of USA defines sanitation “As a way of life”. It is the quality of living that is expressed in the clean home, the clean farm, the clean business, the clean neighborhood and the clean community. Being the way of life, it must come from within the people; it is nourished by knowledge and growing as an obligation and an ideal in human relation.

          Furthermore, the World Health Organization sees environmental sanitation as the control of all factors in man’s physical environment which exercise or may exercise a deleterious effect on his physical developmental health and survival. Within the parlance of this discuss, the definition of Environmental Sanitation (ES) by the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF), USA, is quite appropriate as it sees environmental sanitation as the quality of living the status of living where every second, minute, hour, week and day counts in the home workplaces, neighborhood and in the community at large to making the places sanitary, healthy, hygienic and aesthetic.

          But why does everyday count in environmental sanitation? I am tempted to believe that we meant the casual, perfunctory and reluctant approaches to sanitation issues under the guise of declaring a Day in the month as a sanitation is a ruse and a feigned political or pseudo political will that will fade away with time.

          The monthly environmental sanitation was introduced by the military government some decades ago, nothing appreciable could be shown for it except as a convenient avenue to waste or siphon public fund. People see it as infringing on their fundamental human right and they are always ready to disobey. This apart, it has gone into the psyche of the people that it is only once in a month that you can sanitize your premises-whereas everyday counts.

Environmental Sanitation in Nigeria Today

It is like opening and old wound to raise catalogue of woes or raising dusts my attempt to enumerate the deplorable environmental sanitation situation in Nigeria as it is now, but was have no choice than to chronicle or highlight them to stimulate or provoke our actions albeit satirically.

Practices are usually on policies. Hence, to have a fuller discussion of sanitation practices, detailed understanding of the contemporary sanitation related policies are necessary starting from the pre-independence era, our country has had to grapple with environmental sanitation from the cantonment proclamation of 1901 on the layout and sanitation of GRA to the promulgation of the Public Health Act 1909 on Environmental Sanitation and Building Regulation of 1948.

          Enforcement of Sanitation Laws largely the responsibility of Environmental Health Officers. With this in place, the system is virtually collapsing in the following areas among numerous others. Through this we shall be able to realize why and how everyday counts in sanitation matters.

          Sanitation counts on daily basis because inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease worldwide and improving sanitation is known to have significant beneficial impact on health in household and across communities.

          Out of the estimated population of Nigeria of over 140 million, sanitation coverage (MICS 3) in urban areas is about 70% in the rural areas 31% coverage ranges as low as 10% to over 80% in some states. Only about 30% have access to improved sanitation and about 20% of the population use open defecation (WHO/UNICEF JMP Report 2008).

          Access to hand washing facilities (water, soap and basin) is less than 43% NDIIS 2003).

          Nigerian populations generate refuse at the rate of 0.43kg/head/day and about 70-30% of it is organic in nature. Among other components, 15% accounts for plastic/nylon and about 1 to 2% is metal scrap (Sridhar, 2005). It is common to find garbage glut in many of our cities form heaps and dumps being invaded by unprotected refuse pickers (………….) who seek out a living from wastes, stray animals also scatter the waste to litter the environment. These illegal dumps serve as breeding around for disease vectors like mosquitoes while leachate percolates the soil to contaminate groundwater.

          Yes, everyday counts in environmental matter because the production of waste in general and domestic waste in particular is the most characteristic features of the development of our society this century. The quantity and composition of our waste are indicators of our habits as consumers and of our concern for the environment.

          We must not forget that domestic refuse contains dangerous products such as solvent, batteries, paints, pesticides etc. The presence of what are called heavy metal is especially dangerous, these toxic elements build up in the earth and water from which they can enter the metabolism of living beings and threaten their existence.

          On daily basis, there squander behind the high levels of consumption among most Nigerians resulting in heaps of refuse, most of which cannot be reintroduced into nature’s biogeochemical cycles. The more advanced the technology and the industrial civilization, the larger the various and categories of wastes generated. Contamination also occurs when decomposition and recycling fail to take place. The challenge is to understand that our role in the biosphere is to manage natural resources, that is to use and construct according to the very laws or spirit of the biosphere. The underlying premise must be the moderation and rationalization of our species, relationship with its environment.

          Depending on our administration of refuse and on our alimentary habits and consumption in general, we can increase or reduce the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, global warming, urban heat island, acid precipitations. EL-NINO effects among other climatic problem.

          One can continue endlessly to catalogue all sorts of environmental sanitation problems that are springing up on daily basis. Food vendors are no more practicing personal and environmental hygiene resulting and food contamination, adulteration and poisoning. We do not need to underrate this because more than 70% of the masses depend on vended food nowadays.

          The water packaged industries aka “pure water” are not obeying the rules and regulations of sanitation –food policy or no food policy. Generally, sanitation is a problem that people are often shy or unprepared to discuss, with household waste and its disposal being unpopular subjects from local to the international level.

          Another pertinent question is – what do we need to count? This does not mean counting chronologically, we should be mindful of environmental behaviours and habits, at every moment for the fact that when our stimuli become habits or behaviours, our responses to stimuli become “social traps”.

          We enjoy violating environmental laws because of short time enjoyment to the detriment of the future generation even the present generation.


The pivot on which the achievement and accomplishment of Millennium Development Goals rest is SANITATION, that makes it more imperative to make it (sanitation) count of every moment.

Environmental sanitation is central to the 8 points of the Millennium Development Goals-

  • Eradication of poverty and hunger
  • Achievement of universal primary education (UPE)
  1. Promote gender equity and empower women
  2. Reduce child mortality
  3. Improve maternal health
  4. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
  5. Ensure environmental sustainability
  6. Develop a global partnership for development.

In September 2002, the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. S/A reaffirmed the Millennium Development Goals and added access to basic SANITATION as centerpiece to achieving Millennium Development Goals. In 2007, recognizing the impact of sanitation on health poverty reduction and economic and social development the United Nations GA declares 2008 the International Year of Sanitation (IYS). Five key messages for the IYS are:

  1. Sanitation is vital for human health
  2. Sanitation generates economic benefits
  3. Sanitation contributes to dignity and social development
  4. Sanitation helps the environment
  5. Improving sanitation is achievable.

International Year of Sanitation also focuses on:

  • Human excreta disposal, hence the target of Millennium Development Goals to halve the population of people without access to basic sanitation by 2015.
  • Hygiene, especially and washing with soap
  • Favourable enabling environment.


There is an intimate synergy and symbolic relationship between Environmental Sanitation, Millennium Development Goals. International Year of Sanitation and the Federal Government of Nigeria 7 point agenda. Food security, social security, economic emancipation etc are central in the 7 point agenda. All the seven points are directly or indirectly related to environmental sanitation.

          The implications of neglecting Environmental Sanitation on the 7 point agenda are far too many. For instance, the increase in the prevalence and evidence of emerging re-emerging and existing environmentally related communicable diseases is quite alarming. Non-communicable diseases as a result of hostile environment are also increasing – cancer, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular problems to mention a few.

          The earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s need but not every man’s greed. Greediness in different forms makes us to be desecrating destroying degrading and disrupting the biosphere and the ecosystem.

          It is a matter of urgency that we should …………………………….. environmental sanitation because improved sanitation has been associated with better health and nutritional status. The improper disposal of faeces and waste water causes contamination of the environment and our resources.

          Pathogens from our waste pollute our water and ……………………………… bodies. When 80% of the diseases in Nigeria are result to improper sanitation much more than one’s own health is affected.

          Our economy as a whole is impacted due to the fact that people must pay visit to the doctor and may even lose their jobs……………………..

          Specifically, many working days are lost annually due to sickness caused by unsafe water and lack of sanitation.

Education is also impacted when pupils dropout of school due to ill health. This mindset that all aspects of our life are affected by poor environmental sanitation.


Since our environment is a web of complex interactions which can be disturbed by any amount intrusion, therefore, we must implement ecological sanitation, the reuse and recycling of our waste to ensure the health economic stability and education of our country.

          Information, Education and Communication (IEC) are three very important aspects of creating a demand in communities for proper sanitation on a regular daily basis to making everyday count.

          Participation from the community is an important asset to the success of any project. Especially in the field of sanitation, people are more inclined to use and support the sanitation improvements if they have a role in creating them. Therefore, Environmental Health Officers should train and operate on the opinion that to ensure the use of its latrines and soakage pits community must participate in their establishment.




I want to conclude this paper by reminding us of the saying of Mahatma Gandi of India. He said, “any city that would attend to its sanitation in a proper spirit, will add to both its health and wealth”.

          Sanitation is more important than independence” (Anonymous), therefore consciously and responsible be environmental friendly on a daily basis making everyday to count in environmental sanitation.

Thank you all.


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John, D.C. and Steven, C.H. (1998). Environmental Problems/behavioural solutions. California: Brooks/Cole Pub. Comp.

Sridhar, M.K.C. (2007). Evolution of Environmental Health and Emerging Challenges: The Role of Practitioners. A paper presented at EHORECONMCEP.

The Chartered Institute of Environmental Health (1997). Environmental Health –The Challenge. Worldwide. Web, 29 Jan. 1997.

WHO (1971). Expert Committee Report of Solid Waste Management, Technical Report Series. No. 125.

WHO (2005, May). Protection of the Human Environment. Retrieved September 12. 2009, from